Planet Grep

Planet'ing Belgian FLOSS people

Planet Grep is maintained by Wouter Verhelst. All times are in UTC.

July 27, 2017

Many infosec professionals joined Las Vegas to attend the BlackHat security conference. As I’m not part of those lucky people so I’m waiting for the presentations (they are published when the talk is completed). But I don’t have time to lose sitting in front of my computer and pressing F5… So let’s crawl them automatically…

#!/bin/bash
curl -s https://www.blackhat.com/us-17/briefings.html\ 
| egrep 'https://www.blackhat.com/docs/us-17/.*\.pdf' \
| awk -F '"' '{ print $4 }' \
| while read URL
do
  F=$(basename $URL)
  if [ ! -r $F ]; then
     curl -s -o $F $URL
     echo "Scrapped $f"
   fi
done

Quick and dirty but it works…

[The post Lazy BlackHat Presentations Crawler has been first published on /dev/random]

I published the following diary on isc.sans.org: “TinyPot, My Small Honeypot“.

Running honeypots is always interesting to get an overview of what’s happening on the Internet in terms of scanners or new threats. Honeypots are useful not only in the Wild but also on your internal networks. There are plenty of solutions to deploy honeypots with more or less nice features (depending on the chosen solution). They are plenty of honeypots which can simulate specific services or even mimic a complete file system, computer or specific hardware… [Read more]

 

[The post [SANS ISC] TinyPot, My Small Honeypot has been first published on /dev/random]

July 25, 2017

Yesterday, it was the second time I wondered why the hotspot of my MotoG5 phone wasn’t working with my tablet (after an OS update on the phone and the tablet).

The tablet connected fine to the phone hotspot through wifi, but the traffic was not routed to the Internet. I forgot about the first time I debugged the problem, so a little post-it not to forget it again. The secret is to change the APN type to:

APN type: supl,default

As reference, the other settings for Mobile Vikings:

APN: web.be
Username: web
Password: web
MCC: 206
MNC: 20
Authentication Type: PAP

Filed under: Uncategorized Tagged: hotspot, mobile, mobile vikings, post-it

July 20, 2017

As a Belgian sports fan, I will always be a loyal to the Belgium National Football Team. However, I am willing to extend my allegiance to Arsenal F.C. because they recently launched their new site in Drupal 8! As one of the most successful teams of England's Premier League, Arsenal has been lacing up for over 130 years. On the new Drupal 8 site, Arsenal fans can access news, club history, ticket services, and live match results. This is also a great example of collaboration with two Drupal companies working together - Inviqa in the UK and Phase2 in the US. If you want to see Drupal 8 on Arsenal's roster, check out https://www.arsenal.com!

Arsenal

July 19, 2017

I published the following diary on isc.sans.org: “Bots Searching for Keys & Config Files“.

If you don’t know our “404” project, I would definitively recommend having a look at it! The idea is to track HTTP 404 errors returned by your web servers. I like to compare the value of 404 errors found in web sites log files to “dropped” events in firewall logs. They can have a huge value to detect ongoing attacks or attackers performing some reconnaissance… [Read more]

 

[The post [SANS ISC] Bots Searching for Keys & Config Files has been first published on /dev/random]

July 18, 2017

The post Choose source IP with ping to force ARP refreshes appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

This is a little trick you can use to force outgoing traffic via one particular IP address on a server. By default, if your server has multiple IPs, it'll use the default IP address for any outgoing traffic.

However, if you're changing IP addresses or testing failovers, you might want to force traffic to leave your server as if it's coming from one of the other IP addresses. That way, upstream switches learn your server has this IP address and they can update their ARP caches.

ping allows you to do that very easily (sending ICMP traffic).

$ ping 8.8.8.8 -I 10.0.1.4

The -I parameter sets the interface via which packets should be sent, it can accept either an interface name (like eth1) or an IP address. This way, traffic leaves your server with srcip 10.0.1.4.

Docs describe -I like this;

-I interface address
 Set  source address to specified interface address. Argument may be numeric IP
 address or name of device. When pinging IPv6 link-local address this option is
 required.

So works for both individual IP addresses as well as interfaces.

The post Choose source IP with ping to force ARP refreshes appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

The post Apache httpd 2.2.15-60: underscores in hostnames are now blocked appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

A minor update to the Apache httpd project on CentOS 6 had an unexpected consequence. The update from 2.2.15-59 to 2.2.15-60, as advised because of a small security issue, started respecting RFC 1123 and as a result, stops allowing underscores in hostnames.

I spent a while debugging a similar problem with IE dropping cookies on hostnames with underscores, because it turns out that's not a valid "hostname" as per the definition in RFC 1123.

Long story short, the minor update to Apache broke these kind of URLs;

  • http://client_one.site.tld/
  • http://client_two.site.tld/page/three

These worked fine before,  but now started throwing these errors;

Bad Request

Your browser sent a request that this server could not understand.
Additionally, a 400 Bad Request error was encountered while trying to use an ErrorDocument to handle the request.

The error logs showed the message as such;

[error] client sent HTTP/1.1 request without hostname (see RFC2616 section 14.23)

The short-term workaround was to downgrade Apache again.

$ yum downgrade httpd-tools httpd mod_ssl

And that allowed the underscores again, long-term plan is to migrate those (sub)domains to versions without underscores.

The post Apache httpd 2.2.15-60: underscores in hostnames are now blocked appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

This is a long read, skip to “Prioritizing the projects and changes” for the approach details...

Organizations and companies generally have an IT workload (dare I say, backlog?) which needs to be properly assessed, prioritized and taken up. Sometimes, the IT team(s) get an amount of budget and HR resources to "do their thing", while others need to continuously ask for approval to launch a new project or instantiate a change.

Sizeable organizations even require engineering and development effort on IT projects which are not readily available: specialized teams exist, but they are governance-wise assigned to projects. And as everyone thinks their project is the top-most priority one, many will be disappointed when they hear there are no resources available for their pet project.

So... how should organizations prioritize such projects?

Structure your workload, the SAFe approach

A first exercise you want to implement is to structure the workload, ideas or projects. Some changes are small, others are large. Some are disruptive, others are evolutionary. Trying to prioritize all different types of ideas and changes in the same way is not feasible.

Structuring workload is a common approach. Changes are grouped in projects, projects grouped in programs, programs grouped in strategic tracks. Lately, with the rise in Agile projects, a similar layering approach is suggested in the form of SAFe.

In the Scaled Agile Framework a structure is suggested that uses, as a top-level approach, value streams. These are strategically aligned steps that an organization wants to use to build solutions that provide a continuous flow of value to a customer (which can be internal or external). For instance, for a financial service organization, a value stream could focus on 'Risk Management and Analytics'.

SAFe full framework

SAFe full framework overview, picture courtesy of www.scaledagileframework.com

The value streams are supported through solution trains, which implement particular solutions. This could be a final product for a customer (fitting in a particular value stream) or a set of systems which enable capabilities for a value stream. It is at this level, imo, that the benefits exercises from IT portfolio management and benefits realization management research plays its role (more about that later). For instance, a solution train could focus on an 'Advanced Analytics Platform'.

Within a solution train, agile release trains provide continuous delivery for the various components or services needed within one or more solutions. Here, the necessary solutions are continuously delivered in support of the solution trains. At this level, focus is given on the culture within the organization (think DevOps), and the relatively short-lived delivery delivery periods. This is the level where I see 'projects' come into play.

Finally, you have the individual teams working on deliverables supporting a particular project.

SAFe is just one of the many methods for organization and development/delivery management. It is a good blueprint to look into, although I fear that larger organizations will find it challenging to dedicate resources in a manageable way. For instance, how to deal with specific expertise across solutions which you can't dedicate to a single solution at a time? What if your organization only has two telco experts to support dozens of projects? Keep that in mind, I'll come back to that later...

Get non-content information about the value streams and solutions

Next to the structuring of the workload, you need to obtain information about the solutions that you want to implement (keeping with the SAFe terminology). And bear in mind that seemingly dull things such as ensuring your firewalls are up to date are also deliverables within a larger ecosystem. Now, with information about the solutions, I don't mean the content-wise information, but instead focus on other areas.

Way back, in 1952, Harry Markowitz introduced Modern portfolio theory as a mathematical framework for assembling a portfolio of assets such that the expected return is maximized for a given level of risk (quoted from Wikipedia). This was later used in an IT portfolio approach by McFarlan in his Portfolio Approach to Information Systems article, published in September 1981.

There it was already introduced that risk and return shouldn't be looked at from an individual project viewpoint, but how it contributes to the overall risk and return. A balance, if you wish. His article attempts to categorize projects based on risk profiles on various areas. Personally, I see the suggested categorization more as a way of supporting workload assessments (how many mandays of work will this be), but I digress.

Since then, other publications came up which tried to document frameworks and methodologies that facilitate project portfolio prioritization and management. The focus often boils down to value or benefits realization. In The Information Paradox John Thorp comes up with a benefits realization approach, which enables organizations to better define and track benefits realization - although it again boils down on larger transformation exercises rather than the lower-level backlogs. The realm of IT portfolio management and Benefits realization management gives interesting pointers as to the lecture part of prioritizing projects.

Still, although one can hardly state the resources are incorrect, a common question is how to make this tangible. Personally, I tend to view the above on the value stream level and solution train level. Here, we have a strong alignment with benefits and value for customers, and we can leverage the ideas of past research.

The information needed at this level often boils down to strategic insights and business benefits, coarse-grained resource assessments, with an important focus on quality of the resources. For instance, a solution delivery might take up 500 days of work (rough estimation) but will also require significant back-end development resources.

Handling value streams and solutions

As we implement this on the highest level in the structure, it should be conceivable that the overview of the value streams (a dozen or so) and solutions (a handful per value stream) is manageable, and something that at an executive level is feasible to work with. These are the larger efforts for structuring and making strategic alignment. Formal methods for prioritization are generally not implemented or described.

In my company, there are exercises that are aligning with SAFe, but it isn't company-wide. Still, there is a structure in place that (within IT) one could map to value streams (with some twisting ;-) and, within value streams, there are structures in place that one could map to the solution train exercises.

We could assume that the enterprise knows about its resources (people, budget ...) and makes a high-level suggestion on how to distribute the resources in the mid-term (such as the next 6 months to a year). This distribution is challenged and worked out with the value stream owners. See also "lean budgeting" in the SAFe approach for one way of dealing with this.

There is no prioritization of value streams. The enterprise has already made its decision on what it finds to be the important values and benefits and decided those in value streams.

Within a value stream, the owner works together with the customers (internal or external) to position and bring out solutions. My experience here is that prioritization is generally based on timings and expectations from the customer. In case of resource contention, the most challenging decision to make here is to put a solution down (meaning, not to pursue the delivery of a solution), and such decisions are hardly taken.

Prioritizing the projects and changes

In the lower echelons of the project portfolio structure, we have the projects and changes. Let's say that the levels here are projects (agile release trains) and changes (team-level). Here, I tend to look at prioritization on project level, and this is the level that has a more formal approach for prioritization.

Why? Because unlike the higher levels, where the prioritization is generally quality-oriented on a manageable amount of streams and solutions, we have a large quantity of projects and ideas. Hence, prioritization is more quantity-oriented in which formal methods are more efficient to handle.

The method that is used in my company uses scoring criteria on a per-project level. This is not innovative per se, as past research has also revealed that project categorization and mapping is a powerful approach for handling project portfolio's. Just look for "categorizing priority projects it portfolio" in Google and you'll find ample resources. Kendal's Advanced Project Portfolio Management and the PMO (book) has several example project scoring criteria's. But allow me to explain our approach.

It basically is like so:

  1. Each project selects three value drivers (list decided up front)
  2. For the value drivers, the projects check if they contribute to it slightly (low), moderately (medium) or fully (high)
  3. The value drivers have weights, as do the values. Sum the resulting products to get a priority score
  4. Have the priority score validated by a scoring team

Let's get to the details of it.

For the IT projects within the infrastructure area (which is what I'm active in), we have around 5 scoring criteria (value drivers) that are value-stream agnostic, and then 3 to 5 scoring criteria that are value-stream specific. Each scoring criteria has three potential values: low (2), medium (4) and high (9). The numbers are the weights that are given to the value.

A scoring criteria also has a weight. For instance, we have a scoring criteria on efficiency (read: business case) which has a weight of 15, so a score of medium within that criteria gives a total value of 60 (4 times 15). The potential values here are based on the "return on investment" value, with low being a return less than 2 years, medium within a year, and high within a few months (don't hold me on the actual values, but you get the idea).

The sum of all values gives a priority score. Now, hold your horses, because we're not done yet. There is a scoring rule that says a project can only be scored by at most 3 scoring criteria. Hence, project owners need to see what scoring areas their project is mostly visible in, and use those scoring criteria. This rule supports the notion that people don't bring around ideas that will fix world hunger and make a cure for cancer, but specific, well scoped ideas (the former are generally huge projects, while the latter requires much less resources).

OK, so you have a score - is that your priority? No. As a project always falls within a particular value stream, we have a "scoring team" for each value stream which does a number of things. First, it checks if your project really belongs in the right value stream (but that's generally implied) and has a deliverable that fits the solution or target within that stream. Projects that don't give any value or aren't asked by customers are eliminated.

Next, the team validates if the scoring that was used is correct: did you select the right values (low, medium or high) matching the methodology for said criteria? If not, then the score is adjusted.

Finally, the team validates if the resulting score is perceived to be OK or not. Sometimes, ideas just don't map correctly on scoring criteria, and even though a project has a huge strategic importance or deliverable it might score low. In those cases, the scoring team can adjust the score manually. However, this is more of a fail-safe (due to the methodology) rather than the norm. About one in 20 projects gets its score adjusted. If too many adjustments come up, the scoring team will suggest a change in methodology to rectify the situation.

With the score obtained and validated by the scoring team, the project is given a "go" to move to the project governance. It is the portfolio manager that then uses the scores to see when a project can start.

Providing levers to management

Now, these scoring criteria are not established from a random number generator. An initial suggestion was made on the scoring criteria, and their associated weights, to the higher levels within the organization (read: the people in charge of the prioritization and challenging of value streams and solutions).

The same people are those that approve the weights on the scoring criteria. If management (as this is often the level at which this is decided) feels that business case is, overall, more important than risk reduction, then they will be able to put a higher value in the business case scoring than in the risk reduction.

The only constraint is that the total value of all scoring criteria must be fixed. So an increase on one scoring criteria implies a reduction on at least one other scoring criteria. Also, changing the weights (or even the scoring criteria themselves) cannot be done frequently. There is some inertia in project prioritization: not the implementation (because that is a matter of following through) but the support it will get in the organization itself.

Management can then use external benchmarks and other sources to gauge the level that an organization is at, and then - if needed - adjust the scoring weights to fit their needs.

Resource allocation in teams

Portfolio managers use the scores assigned to the projects to drive their decisions as to when (and which) projects to launch. The trivial approach is to always pick the projects with the highest scores. But that's not all.

Projects can have dependencies on other projects. If these dependencies are "hard" and non-negotiable, then the upstream project (the one being dependent on) inherits the priority of the downstream project (the one depending on the first) if the downstream project has a higher priority. Soft dependencies however need to validate if they can (or have to) wait, or can implement workarounds if needed.

Projects also have specific resource requirements. A project might have a high priority, but if it requires expertise (say DBA knowledge) which is unavailable (because those resources are already assigned to other ongoing projects) then the project will need to wait (once resources are fully allocated and the projects are started, then they need to finish - another reason why projects have a narrow scope and an established timeframe).

For engineers, operators, developers and other roles, this approach allows them to see which workload is more important versus others. When their scope is always within a single value stream, then the mentioned method is sufficient. But what if a resource has two projects, each of a different value stream? As each value stream has its own scoring criteria it can use (and weight), one value stream could systematically have higher scores than others...

Mixing and matching multiple value streams

To allow projects to be somewhat comparable in priority values, an additional rule has been made in the scoring methodology: value streams must have a comparable amount of scoring criteria (value drivers), and the total value of all criteria must be fixed (as was already mentioned before). So if there are four scoring criteria and the total value is fixed at 20, then one value stream can have its criteria at (5,3,8,4) while another has it at (5,5,5,5).

This is still not fully adequate, as one value stream could use a single criteria with the maximum amount (20,0,0,0). However, we elected not to put in an additional constraint, and have management work things out if the situation ever comes out. Luckily, even managers are just human and they tend to follow the notion of well-balanced value drivers.

The result is that two projects will have priority values that are currently sufficiently comparable to allow cross-value-stream experts to be exchangeable without monopolizing these important resources to a single value stream portfolio.

Current state

The scoring methodology has been around for a few years already. Initially, it had fixed scoring criteria used by three value streams (out of seven, the other ones did not use the same methodology), but this year we switched to support both value stream agnostic criteria (like in the past) as well as value stream specific ones.

The methodology is furthest progressed in one value stream (with focus of around 1000 projects) and is being taken up by two others (they are still looking at what their stream-specific criteria are before switching).

July 17, 2017

The post mysqldump without table locks (MyISAM and InnoDB) appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

It's one of those things I always have to Google again and again, so documenting for my own sanity.

Here's how to run mysqldump without any locks, which works on both MyISAM and InnoDB data engines. There are no READ nor WRITE locks, which means the dump will have little to no influence on the machine (except for CPU & disk I/O for taking the back-up), but your data will also not be consistent.

This is useful for testing migrations though, where you might not need locks, but are more interested in timing back-ups or spotting other timeout-related bugs.

$ mysqldump --compress --quick --triggers --routines --lock-tables=false --single-transaction {YOUR_DATABASE_NAME}

The key parameters are --lock-tables=false (for MyISAM) and --single-transaction (for InnoDB).

If you need more options or flexibility, xtrabackup is a tool to check out.

The post mysqldump without table locks (MyISAM and InnoDB) appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

July 13, 2017

July 12, 2017

A QEventLoop is a heavy dependency. Not every worker thread wants to require all its consumers to have one. This renders QueuedConnection not always suitable. I get that signals and slots are a useful mechanism, also for thread-communications. But what if your worker thread has no QEventLoop yet wants to wait for a result of what another worker-thread produces?

QWaitCondition is often what you want. Don’t be afraid to use it. Also, don’t be afraid to use QFuture and QFutureWatcher.

Just be aware that the guys at Qt have not yet decided what the final API for the asynchronous world should be. The KIO guys discussed making a QJob and/or a QAbstractJob. Because QFuture is result (of T) based (and waits and blocks on it, using a condition). And a QJob (derived from what currently KJob is), isn’t or wouldn’t or shouldn’t block (such a QJob should allow for interactive continuation, for example — “overwrite this file? Y/N”). Meanwhile you want a clean API to fetch the result of any asynchronous operation. Blocked waiting for it, or not. It’s an uneasy choice for an API designer. Don’t all of us want APIs that can withstand the test of time? We do, yes.

Yeah. The world of programming is, at some level, complicated. But I’m also sure something good will come out of it. Meanwhile, form your asynchronous APIs on the principles of QFuture and or KJob: return something that can be waited for.

Sometimes a prediction of how it will be like is worth more than a promise. I honestly can’t predict what Thiago will approve, commit or endorse. And I shouldn’t.

 

I published the following diary on isc.sans.org: “Backup Scripts, the FIM of the Poor“.

File Integrity Management or “FIM” is an interesting security control that can help to detect unusual changes in a file system. By example, on a server, they are directories that do not change often. Example with a UNIX environment:

  • Binaries & libraries in /usr/lib, /usr/bin, /bin, /sbin, /usr/local/bin, …
  • Configuration files in /etc
  • Devices files in /dev

[Read more]

 

[The post [SANS ISC] Backup Scripts, the FIM of the Poor has been first published on /dev/random]

If you visit Acquia's homepage today, you will be greeted by this banner:

Acquia supports net neutrality

We've published this banner in solidarity with the hundreds of companies who are voicing their support of net neutrality.

Net neutrality regulations ensure that web users are free to enjoy whatever sites they choose without interference from Internet Service Providers (ISPs). These protections establish an open web where people can explore and express their ideas. Under the current administration, the U.S. Federal Communications Commision favors less-strict regulation of net neutrality, which could drastically alter the way that people experience and access the web. Today, Acquia is joining the ranks of companies like Amazon, Atlassian, Netflix and Vimeo to advocate for strong net neutrality regulations.

Why the FCC wants to soften net neutrality regulations

In 2015, the United States implemented strong protections favoring net neutrality after ISPs were classified as common carriers under Title II of the Communications Act of 1934. This classification catalogs broadband as an "essential communication service", which means that services are to be delivered equitably and costs kept reasonable. Title II was the same classification granted to telcos decades ago to ensure consumers had fair access to phone service. Today, the Title II classification of ISPs protects the open internet by making paid prioritization, blocking or throttling of traffic unlawful.

The issue of net neutrality is coming under scrutiny since to the appointment of Ajit Pai as the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission. Pai favors less regulation and has suggested that the net neutrality laws of 2015 impede the ISP market. He argues that while people may support net neutrality, the market requires more competition to establish faster and cheaper access to the Internet. Pai believes that net neutrality regulations have the potential to curb investment in innovation and could heighten the digital divide. As FCC Chairman, Pai wants to reclassify broadband services under less-restrictive regulations and to eliminate definitive protections for the open internet.

In May 2017, the three members of the Federal Communications Commission voted 2-1 to advance a plan to remove Title II classification from broadband services. That vote launched a public comment period, which is open until mid August. After this period the commission will take a final vote.

Why net neutrality protections are good

I strongly disagree with Pai's proposed reclassification of net neutrality. Without net neutrality, ISPs can determine how users access websites, applications and other digital content. Today, both the free flow of information, and exchange of ideas benefit from 'open highways'. Net neutrality regulations ensure equal access at the point of delivery, and promote what I believe to be the fairest competition for content and service providers.

If the FCC rolls back net neutrality protections, ISPs would be free to charge site owners for priority service. This goes directly against the idea of an open web, which guarantees a unfettered and decentralized platform to share and access information. There are many challenges in maintaining an open web, including "walled gardens" like Facebook and Google. We call them "walled gardens" because they control the applications, content and media on their platform. While these closed web providers have accelerated access and adoption of the web, they also raise concerns around content control and privacy. Issues of net neutrality contribute a similar challenge.

When certain websites have degraded performance because they can't afford the premiums asked by ISPs, it affects how we explore and express ideas online. Not only does it drive up the cost of maintaining a website, but it undermines the internet as an open space where people can explore and express their ideas. It creates a class system that puts smaller sites or less funded organizations at a disadvantage. Dismantling net neutrality regulations raises the barrier for entry when sharing information on the web as ISPs would control what we see and do online. Congruent with the challenge of "walled gardens", when too few organizations control the media and flow of information, we must be concerned.

In the end, net neutrality affects how people, including you and me, experience the web. The internet's vast growth is largely a result of its openness. Contrary to Pai's reasoning, the open web has cultivated creativity, spawned new industries, and protects the free expression of ideas. At Acquia, we believe in supporting choice, competition and free speech on the internet. The "light touch" regulations now proposed by the FCC may threaten that very foundation.

What you can do today

If you're also concerned about the future of net neutrality, you can share your comments with the FCC and the U.S. Congress (it will only take you a minute!). You can do so through Fight for the Future, who organized today's day of action. The 2015 ruling that classified broadband service under Title II came after the FCC received more than 4 million comments on the topic, so let your voice be heard.

July 11, 2017

The post Launching the cron.weekly forum appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

I've been writing a weekly newsletter on Linux & open source technologies for nearly 2 years now at cron.weekly and to this day I'm amazed by all the feedback and response I've gotten from it. What's even more fun is watching the subscriber base grow on a weekly basis, to over 6.000 users already!

(That initial big spike is actually from when I imported the MailChimp list into a self-hosted Sendy installation)

At every issue there's good feedback on the projects I list, comments on the stories, ... it's so much fun!

But there's a downside ...

Taking cron.weekly to the next level

All that feedback has been directed at me. I've been mailing thousands of Linux enthousiasts every week and it's been one-way communication. I talk, they listen. That seems like a waste of potential.

Imagine if every one on that newsletter could share their knowledge and expertise and connect to one another? I'm definitely not the smartest person to be mailing them all, there are far more intelligent folks subscribed. I want to get them involved!

To start building a community around cron.weekly I've launched the cron.weekly forum. Yes, there are things like Reddit, Stack Overflow, Quora, ... and all other fun places to discuss topics. But there's one thing they don't have; the like minded people that subscribe to cron.weekly that each have the same interest at heart: caring about Linux, open source & web technologies.

Launching the forum is an experiment, there's already so many places out there to "waste your time" online, but I'm confident it can become an interactive place to discuss new technologies, share ideas or launch new open source projects.

Heck, there already interesting topics on load balancing features & requirements, end-to-end encrypted backups, new open source projects like git-dit, ...

Highlighting questions

If questions posted to the forum remain unanswered, I'll call upon the great powers of cron.weekly subscribers to highlight them and raise awareness, get more eyes on the topic & find the best answer possible.

The last cron.weekly issue #88 already had a "Ask cron.weekly" section to get that started.

I'm confident about the future of that forum, I think the newsletter can be a great way to get more attention to difficult-to-solve questions and allow cron.weekly to actively help its community members.

How can you help?

  • Promote the cron.weekly newsletter to your friends, family & pets
  • If you've got a problem, try asking on the cron.weekly forum
  • If you started a new open source projected or reached a new milestone, brag about it in the "Show CW" section

Now let's build a community together. :-) (1)

(1) I know, it's cheesy -- but I had to end my post with something, right?

The post Launching the cron.weekly forum appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

July 10, 2017

July 09, 2017

The first release of the CDN module for Drupal was 9.5 years ago yesterday: cdn 5.x-1.0-beta1 was released on January 8, 2008!

Excitement

On January 27, 2008, the first RC followed, with boatloads of new features. Over the years, it was ported to Drupal 61, 7 and 8 and gained more features (I effectively added every single feature that was requested — I loved empowering the site builder). I did the same with my Hierarchical Select module.

I was a Computer Science student for the first half of those 9.5 years, and it was super exciting to see people actually use my code on hundreds, thousands and even tens of thousands of sites! In stark contrast with the assignments at university, where the results were graded, then discarded.

Frustration

Unfortunately this approach resulted in feature-rich modules, with complex UIs to configure them, and many, many bug reports and support requests, because they were so brittle and confusing. Rather than making the 80% case simple, I supported 99% of needed features, and made things confusing and complex for 100% of the users.


CDN settings: 'Details' tab Main CDN module configuration UI in Drupal 7.


Learning

In my job in Acquia’s Office of the CTO, my job is effectively “make Drupal better & faster”.

In 2012–2013, it was improving the authoring experience by adding in-place editing and tightly integrating CKEditor. Then it shifted in 2014 and 2015 to “make Drupal 8 shippable”, first by working on the cache system, then on the render pipeline and finally on the intersection of both: Dynamic Page Cache and BigPipe. After Drupal 8 shipped at the end of 2015, the next thing became “improve Drupal 8’s REST APIs”, which grew into the API-First Initiative.

All this time (5 years already!), I’ve been helping to build Drupal itself (the system, the APIs, the infrastructure, the overarching architecture), and have seen the long-term consequences from both up close and afar: the concepts required to understand how it all works, the APIs to extend, override and plug in to. In that half decade, I’ve often cursed past commits, including my own!

That’s what led to:

  • my insistence that the dynamic_page_cache and big_pipe modules in Drupal 8 core do not have a UI, nor any configuration, and rely entirely on existing APIs and metadata to do their thing (with only a handful of bug reports in >18 months!)
  • my “Backwards Compatibility: Burden & Benefit” talk a few months ago
  • and of course this rewrite of the CDN module

CDN module in Drupal 8: radically simpler

I started porting the CDN module to Drupal 8 in March 2016 — a few months after the release of Drupal 8. It is much simpler to use (just look at the UI). It has less overhead (the UI is in a separate module, the altering of file URLs has far simpler logic). It has lower technical complexity (File Conveyor support was dropped, it no longer needs to detect HTTP vs HTTPS: it always uses protocol-relative URLs, less unnecessary configurability, the farfuture functionality no longer tries to generate file and no longer has extremely detailed configurability).

In other words: the CDN module in Drupal 8 is much simpler. And has much better test coverage too. (You can see this in the tarball size too: it’s about half of the Drupal 7 version of the module, despite significantly more test coverage!)


CDN UI module version 3.0-rc2 on Drupal 8 CDN UI module in Drupal 8.


all the fundamentals
  • the ability to use simple CDN mappings, including conditional ones depending on file extensions, auto-balancing, and complex combinations of all of the above
  • preconnecting (and DNS prefetching for older browsers)
  • a simple UI to set it up — in fact, much simpler than before!
changed/improved
  1. the CDN module now always uses protocol-relative URLs, which means there’s no more need to distinguish between HTTP and HTTPS, which simplifies a lot
  2. the UI is now a separate module
  3. the UI is optional: for power users there is a sensible configuration structure with strict config schema validation
  4. complete unit test coverage of the heart of the CDN module, thanks to D8’s improved architecture
  5. preconnecting (and DNS prefetching) using headers rather than tags in , which allows a much simpler/cleaner Symfony response subscriber
  6. tours instead of advanced help, which very often was ignored
  7. there is nothing to configure for the SEO (duplicate content prevention) feature anymore
  8. nor is there anything to configure for the Forever cacheable files feature anymore (named Far Future expiration in Drupal 7), and it’s a lot more robust
removed
  1. File Conveyor support
  2. separate HTTPS mapping (also mentioned above)
  3. all the exceptions (blacklist, whitelist, based on Drupal path, file path…) — all of them are a maintenance/debugging/cacheability nightmare
  4. configurability of SEO feature
  5. configurability of unique file identifiers for the Forever cacheable files feature
  6. testing mode

For very complex mappings, you must manipulate cdn.settings.yml — there’s inline documentation with examples there. Those who need the complex setups don’t mind reading three commented examples in a YAML file. This used to be configurable through the UI, but it also was possible to configure it “incorrectly”, resulting in broken sites — that’s no longer possible.

There’s comprehensive test coverage for everything in the critical path, and basic integration test coverage. Together, they ensure peace of mind, and uncover bugs in the next minor Drupal 8 release: BC breaks are detected early and automatically.

The results after 8 months: contributed module maintainer bliss

The first stable release of the CDN module for Drupal 8 was published on December 2, 2016. Today, I released the first patch release: cdn 8.x-3.1. The change log is tiny: a PHP notice fixed, two minor automated testing infrastructure problems fixed, and two new minor features added.

We can now compare the Drupal 7 and 8 versions of the CDN module:

In other words: maintaining this contributed module now requires pretty much zero effort!

Conclusion

For your own Drupal 8 modules, no matter if they’re contributed or custom, I recommend a few key rules:

  • Selective feature set.
  • Comprehensive unit test coverage for critical code paths (UnitTestCase)2 + basic integration test coverage (BrowserTestBase) maximizes confidence while minimizing time spent.
  • Don’t provide/build APIs (that includes hooks) unless you see a strong use case for it. Prefer coarse over granular APIs unless you’re absolutely certain.
  • Avoid configurability if possible. Otherwise, use config schemas to your advantage, provide a simple UI for the 80% use case. Leave the rest to contrib/custom modules.

This is more empowering for the Drupal site builder persona, because they can’t shoot themselves in the foot anymore. It’s no longer necessary to learn the complex edge cases in each contributed module’s domain, because they’re no longer exposed in the UI. In other words: domain complexities no longer leak into the UI.

At the same time, it hugely decreases the risk of burnout in module maintainers!

And of course: use the CDN module, it’s rock solid! :)

Related reading

Finally, read Amitai Burstein’s OG8 Development Mindset”! He makes very similar observations, albeit about a much bigger contributed module (Organic Groups). Some of my favorite quotes:

  1. About edge cases & complexity:
    Edge cases are no longer my concern. I mean, I’m making sure that edge cases can be done and the API will cater to it, but I won’t go too far and implement them. […] we’ve somewhat reduced the flexibility in order to reduce the complexity; but while doing so, made sure edge cases can still hook into the process.
  2. About tests:
    I think there is another hidden merit in tests. By taking the time to carefully go over your own code - and using it - you give yourself some pause to think about the necessity of your recently added code. Do you really need it? If you are not afraid of writing code and then throwing it out the window, and you are true to yourself, you can create a better, less complex, and polished module.
  3. About feature set & UI:
    One of the mistakes that I feel made in OG7 was exposing a lot of the advanced functionality in the UI. […] But these are all advanced use cases. When thinking about how to port them to OG8, I think found the perfect solution: we did’t port it.

  1. I also did my bachelor thesis about Drupal + CDN integration, which led to the Drupal 6 version of the module. ↩︎

  2. Unit tests in Drupal 8 are wonderful, they’re nigh impossible in Drupal 7. They finish running in seconds. ↩︎

July 08, 2017

I published the following diary on isc.sans.org: “A VBScript with Obfuscated Base64 Data“.

A few months ago, I posted a diary to explain how to search for (malicious) PE files in Base64 data. Base64 is indeed a common way to distribute binary content in an ASCII form. There are plenty of scripts based on this technique. On my Macbook, I’m using a small service created via Automator to automatically decode highlighted Base64 data and submit them to my Viper instance for further analysis… [Read more]

[The post [SANS ISC] A VBScript with Obfuscated Base64 Data has been first published on /dev/random]

July 06, 2017

I’m at home now. I don’t do non-public unpaid work. So let’s blog the example I’m making for him.

workplace.h

#ifndef Workplace_H
#define Workplace_H

#include <QObject>
#include <QFuture>
#include <QWaitCondition>
#include <QMutex>
#include <QStack>
#include <QList>
#include <QThread>
#include <QFutureWatcher>

class Workplace;

typedef enum {
    WT_INSERTS,
    WT_QUERY
} WorkplaceWorkType;

typedef struct {
    WorkplaceWorkType type;
    QList<int> values;
    QString query;
    QFutureInterface<bool> insertIface;
    QFutureInterface<QList<QStringList> > queryIface;
} WorkplaceWork;

class WorkplaceWorker: public QThread {
    Q_OBJECT
public:
    WorkplaceWorker(QObject *parent = NULL)
        : QThread(parent), m_running(false) { }
    void run() Q_DECL_OVERRIDE;
    void pushWork(WorkplaceWork *a_work);
private:
    QStack<WorkplaceWork*> m_ongoing;
    QMutex m_mutex;
    QWaitCondition m_waitCondition;
    bool m_running;
};

class Workplace: public QObject {
    Q_OBJECT
public:
    explicit Workplace(QObject *a_parent=0) : QObject (a_parent) {}
    bool insert(QList<int> a_values);
    QList<QStringList> query(const QString &a_param);
    QFuture<bool> insertAsync(QList<int> a_values);
    QFuture<QList<QStringList> > queryAsync(const QString &a_param);
private:
    WorkplaceWorker m_worker;
};

class App: public QObject {
    Q_OBJECT
public slots:
    void perform();
    void onFinished();
private:
    Workplace m_workplace;
};

#endif// Workplace_H

workplace.cpp

#include "workplace.h"

void App::onFinished()
{
    QFutureWatcher<bool> *watcher = static_cast<QFutureWatcher<bool>* > ( sender() );
    delete watcher;
}

void App::perform()
{
    for (int i=0; i<10; i++) {
       QList<int> vals;
       vals.append(1);
       vals.append(2);
       QFutureWatcher<bool> *watcher = new QFutureWatcher<bool>;
       connect (watcher, &QFutureWatcher<bool>::finished, this, &App::onFinished);
       watcher->setFuture( m_workplace.insertAsync( vals ) );
    }

    for (int i=0; i<10; i++) {
       QList<int> vals;
       vals.append(1);
       vals.append(2);
       qWarning() << m_workplace.insert( vals );
       qWarning() << m_workplace.query("test");
    }
}

void WorkplaceWorker::pushWork(WorkplaceWork *a_work)
{
    if (!m_running) {
        start();
    }

    m_mutex.lock();
    switch (a_work->type) {
    case WT_QUERY:
        m_ongoing.push_front( a_work );
    break;
    default:
        m_ongoing.push_back( a_work );
    }
    m_waitCondition.wakeAll();
    m_mutex.unlock();
}

void WorkplaceWorker::run()
{
    m_mutex.lock();
    m_running = true;
    while ( m_running ) {
        m_mutex.unlock();
        m_mutex.lock();
        if ( m_ongoing.isEmpty() ) {
            m_waitCondition.wait(&m_mutex);
        }
        WorkplaceWork *work = m_ongoing.pop();
        m_mutex.unlock();

        // Do work here and report progress
        sleep(1);

        switch (work->type) {
        case WT_QUERY: {
            // Report result here
            QList<QStringList> result;
            QStringList row;
            row.append("abc"); row.append("def");
            result.append(row);
            work->queryIface.reportFinished( &result );
            } break;

        case WT_INSERTS:
        default: {
            // Report result here
            bool result = true;
            work->insertIface.reportFinished( &result );
            } break;
        }

        m_mutex.lock();
        delete work;
    }
    m_mutex.unlock();
}

bool Workplace::insert(QList<int> a_values)
{
    WorkplaceWork *work = new WorkplaceWork;;
    QFutureWatcher<bool> watcher;
    work->type = WT_INSERTS;
    work->values = a_values;
    work->insertIface.reportStarted();
    watcher.setFuture ( work->insertIface.future() );
    m_worker.pushWork( work );
    watcher.waitForFinished();
    return watcher.result();
}

QList<QStringList> Workplace::query(const QString &a_param)
{
    WorkplaceWork *work = new WorkplaceWork;
    QFutureWatcher<QList<QStringList> > watcher;
    work->type = WT_QUERY;
    work->query = a_param;
    work->queryIface.reportStarted();
    watcher.setFuture ( work->queryIface.future() );
    m_worker.pushWork( work );
    watcher.waitForFinished();
    return watcher.result();
}

QFuture<bool> Workplace::insertAsync(QList<int> a_values)
{
    WorkplaceWork *work = new WorkplaceWork;
    work->type = WT_INSERTS;
    work->values = a_values;
    work->insertIface.reportStarted();
    QFuture<bool> future = work->insertIface.future();
    m_worker.pushWork( work );
    return future;
}

QFuture<QList<QStringList> > Workplace::queryAsync(const QString &a_param)
{
    WorkplaceWork *work = new WorkplaceWork;
    work->type = WT_QUERY;
    work->query = a_param;
    work->queryIface.reportStarted();
    QFuture<QList<QStringList> > future = work->queryIface.future();
    m_worker.pushWork( work );
    return future;
}

The post Some more nuances to the systemd debacle appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

I published my thoughts on the systemd "0day username gets root access" bug a few days ago. That got quite the attention and the discussion in places like HN, Reddit & Twitter.

So yesterday, The Register reached out asking for my comment. It ended in a piece they published where I'm quoted ever so slightly.

In a blog post on Sunday, Mattias Geniar, a developer based in Belgium, said the issue qualifies as a bug because systemd's parsing of the User= parameter in unit files falls back on root privileges when user names are invalid.

It would be better, Geniar said in an email to The Register, if systemd defaulted to user rather than root privileges. Geniar stressed that while this presents a security concern, it's a not a critical security issue because the attack vectors are limited.
Create a user called '0day', get bonus root privs – thanks, Systemd!

My reply to their inquiry was a bit more nuanced than that though, so for the sake of transparency I'll publish my response below.

They also reached out on Twitter to confirm that "the snark is all theirs, of course" -- I appreciate that!

My response to The Register

The e-mail starts of with a set of questions.

Lennart Poettering seems disinclined to accept that systemd should
check for invalid names.

I think he's right in that systemd doesn't have to check for invalid names, after all -- those shouldn't even get on the system in the first place. It would be nice if systemd did though, the more validation the better. Any webdeveloper knows he/she shouldn't blindly trust user input, so why should systemd?

In this regard, I think Lennart is absolutely right that systemd should & does try to validate the username.

However, the problem here is that the username "0day" is a legit username, that's being validated as invalid, after which systemd falls back to its system default, root. Arguably, perhaps not a sane default and a non-privileged user would be better.

I wanted to find out why you see the issue with systemd as a security
flaw. How might the ability to create a user with a name like "0day"
be exploited?

if I can be 100% clear upfront: this flaw/bugreport in systemd is most definitely a security issue. However, even though it sounds bad, it's not a critical security issue. Attack vectors are limited, but they exist. My post was mostly aimed at preventing bad press that would interpret this bug as "if your username contains a digit, you can become root".

In order to exploit this, you need;

  • a username that gets interpreted by systemd as invalid (there are most likely more potential usernames that get interpreted as invalid)
  • a systemd unit file to launch a script or service

Here's where this is a potential issue;

  • Shared hosting: systems that allow a username to be chosen by the client, that eventually run PHP, Ruby, ... as that user. On RHEL/CentOS7, those could (1) get started by systemd
  • Self-service portals that use systemd to manage one-off or recurring tasks with systemd
  • Any place that allows user input for systemd-managed tasks, think controlpanels like Plesk, DirectAdmin, ... that allow usernames to be chosen for script execution

(1) those implementing shared hosting have a wide variety of ways to implement it though, so no guarantee that it's going to be a unit file with systemd.

In most cases (all?), you need at least access to the system already in one way or another, to try and use this bug as a security vector to get privilege escalation.

Take care,

Mattias

The post Some more nuances to the systemd debacle appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

July 02, 2017

The post Giving perspective on systemd’s “usernames that start with digit get root privileges”-bug appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

Fire in the hole! There's a new systemd bug that gets the haters aroused! 

The bug in question is one where systemd's unit files that contain illegal usernames get defaulted to root, so they get run as the root user. It sounds pretty bad;

> In case of bug report: Expected behaviour you didn't see
The process started by systemd should be user previlege

> In case of bug report: Unexpected behaviour you saw
The process started by systemd was root previlege

systemd can't handle the process previlege that belongs to user name startswith number, such as 0day

Let's break it down.

How the bug happens

If you have a systemd unit file that looks like this, the service that should start as the user "0day" will actually be run as the root user.

[Unit]
Description=0day socat service
After=network.target

[Service]
User=0day
Restart=always
Type=simple
WorkingDirectory=/home/0day/
ExecStart=/usr/bin/socat TCP-LISTEN:18086,reuseaddr,fork EXEC:"/opt/run-elf"

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

This is definitely a bug, because RHEL7 (and thus, CentOS and other derivatives) do allow usernames that start with a digit. It's systemd's parsing of the User= parameter that determines the naming doesn't follow a set of conventions, and decides to fall back to its default value, root.

Just to prove a point, here's a 0day user on CentOS 7.3.

$ cat /etc/redhat-release
CentOS Linux release 7.3.1611 (Core)
$ useradd 0day
$ su - 0day

$ id
uid=1067(0day) gid=1067(0day) groups=1067(0day)

That user works. The bug is thus in systemd where it doesn't recognize that as a valid username.

Why the big fuss?

If you quickly glance over the bug (and especially the hype-media that loves to blow this up), it can come across as if every username that starts with a digit can automatically get root privileges on any machine that has systemd installed (which, let's be frank, is pretty much every modern Linux distro).

That's not the case. You need a valid systemd Unit file before that could ever happen.

This might be a security issue, but is hard to trigger

So in order to trigger this behaviour, someone with root-level privileges needs to edit a Unit file and enter a "invalid username", in this case one that starts with a digit.

But you need root level privileges to edit the file in the first place and to reload systemd to make use of that Unit file.

So here's the potential security risk;

  • You could trick a sysadmin into creating such a Unit file, hoping they miss this behaviour and trick your user in becoming root
  • You need an exploit to grant you write access to systemd's Unit files in order to escalate your privileges further

At this point, I don't think I'm missing another attack vector here.

Should this be fixed?

Yes. It's an obvious bug (at least on RHEL/CentOS 7), since a valid username does not get accepted by systemd so it triggers unexpected behaviour by launching services as root.

However, it isn't as bad as it sounds and does not grant any username with a digit immediate root access.

But it's systemd, so everyone loves to jump on that bandwagon and hype this as much as possible. Here's the deal folks: systemd is software and it has bugs. The Linux kernel also has bugs, but we don't go around blaming Linus for everyone one of those either.

I disabled the comments on this post because I'm not in the mood in yet another systemd debacle where my comment section gets abused for personal threats or violence. If you want to discuss, the post is on HackerNews & /r/linux.

The post Giving perspective on systemd’s “usernames that start with digit get root privileges”-bug appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

June 29, 2017

This week marked Acquia's 10th anniversary. In 2007, Jay Batson and I set out to build a software company based on open source and Drupal that we would come to call Acquia. In honor of our tenth anniversary, I wanted to share some of the milestones and lessons that have helped shape Acquia into the company it is today. I haven't shared these details before so I hope that my record of Acquia's founding not only pays homage to our incredible colleagues, customers and partners that have made this journey worthwhile, but that it offers honest insight into the challenges and rewards of building a company from the ground up. If you like this story, I also encourage you to read Jay's side of story.

A Red Hat for Drupal

In 2007, I was attending the University of Ghent working on my PhD dissertation. At the same time, Drupal was gaining momentum; I will never forget when MTV called me seeking support for their new Drupal site. I remember being amazed that a brand like MTV, an institution I had grown up with, had selected Drupal for their website. I was determined to make Drupal successful and helped MTV free of charge.

It became clear that for Drupal to grow, it needed a company focused on helping large organizations like MTV be successful with the software. A "Red Hat for Drupal", as it were. I also noticed that other open source projects, such as Linux had benefitted from well-capitalized backers like Red Hat and IBM. While I knew I wanted to start such a company, I had not yet figured out how. I wanted to complete my PhD first before pursuing business. Due to the limited time and resources afforded to a graduate student, Drupal remained a hobby.

Little did I know that at the same time, over 3,000 miles away, Jay Batson was skimming through a WWII Navajo Code Talker Dictionary. Jay was stationed as an Entrepreneur in Residence at North Bridge Venture Partners, a venture capital firm based in Boston. Passionate about open source, Jay realized there was an opportunity to build a company that provided customers with the services necessary to scale and succeed with open source software. We were fortunate that Michael Skok, a Venture Partner at North Bridge and Jay's sponsor, was working closely with Jay to evaluate hundreds of open source software projects. In the end, Jay narrowed his efforts to Drupal and Apache Solr.

If you're curious as to how the Navajo Code Talker Dictionary fits into all of this, it's how Jay stumbled upon the name Acquia. Roughly translating as "to spot or locate", Acquia was the closest concept in the dictionary that reinforced the ideals of information and content that are intrinsic to Drupal (it also didn't hurt that the letter A would rank first in alphabetical listings). Finally, the similarity to the world "Aqua" paid homage to the Drupal Drop; this would eventually provide direction for Acquia's logo.

Breakfast in Sunnyvale

In March of 2007, I flew from Belgium to California to attend Yahoo's Open Source CMS Summit, where I also helped host DrupalCon Sunnyvale. It was at DrupalCon Sunnyvale where Jay first introduced himself to me. He explained that he was interested in building a company that could provide enterprise organizations supplementary services and support for a number of open source projects, including Drupal and Apache Solr. Initially, I was hesitant to meet with Jay. I was focused on getting Drupal 5 released, and I wasn't ready to start a company until I finished my PhD. Eventually I agreed to breakfast.

Over a baguette and jelly, I discovered that there was overlap between Jay's ideas and my desire to start a "Red Hat for Drupal". While I wasn't convinced that it made sense to bring Apache Solr into the equation, I liked that Jay believed in open source and that he recognized that open source projects were more likely to make a big impact when they were supported by companies that had strong commercial backing.

We spent the next few months talking about a vision for the business, eliminated Apache Solr from the plan, talked about how we could elevate the Drupal community, and how we would make money. In many ways, finding a business partner is like dating. You have to get to know each other, build trust, and see if there is a match; it's a process that doesn't happen overnight.

On June 25th, 2007, Jay filed the paperwork to incorporate Acquia and officially register the company name. We had no prospective customers, no employees, and no formal product to sell. In the summer of 2007, we received a convertible note from North Bridge. This initial seed investment gave us the capital to create a business plan, travel to pitch to other investors, and hire our first employees. Since meeting Jay in Sunnyvale, I had gotten to know Michael Skok who also became an influential mentor for me.

Wired interviewJay and me on one of our early fundraising trips to San Francisco.

Throughout this period, I remained hesitant about committing to Acquia as I was devoted to completing my PhD. Eventually, Jay and Michael convinced me to get on board while finishing my PhD, rather than doing things sequentially.

Acquia, my Drupal startup

Soon thereafter, Acquia received a Series A term sheet from North Bridge, with Michael Skok leading the investment. We also selected Sigma Partners and Tim O'Reilly's OATV from all of the interested funds as co-investors with North Bridge; Tim had become both a friend and an advisor to me.

In many ways we were an unusual startup. Acquia itself didn't have a product to sell when we received our Series A funding. We knew our product would likely be support for Drupal, and evolve into an Acquia-equivalent of the Red Hat Network. However, neither of those things existed, and we were raising money purely on a PowerPoint deck. North Bridge, Sigma and OATV mostly invested in Jay and I, and the belief that Drupal could become a billion dollar company that would disrupt the web content management market. I'm incredibly thankful for Jay, North Bridge, Sigma and OATV for making a huge bet on me.

Receiving our Series A funding was an incredible vote of confidence in Drupal, but it was also a milestone with lots of mixed emotions. We had raised $7 million, which is not a trivial amount. While I was excited, it was also a big step into the unknown. I was convinced that Acquia would be good for Drupal and open source, but I also understood that this would have a transformative impact on my life. In the end, I felt comfortable making the jump because I found strong mentors to help translate my vision for Drupal into a business plan; Jay and Michael's tenure as entrepreneurs and business builders complimented my technical strength and enabled me to fine-tune my own business building skills.

In November 2007, we officially announced Acquia to the world. We weren't ready but a reporter had caught wind of our stealth startup, and forced us to unveil Acquia's existence to the Drupal community with only 24 hours notice. We scrambled and worked through the night on a blog post. Reactions were mixed, but generally very supportive. I shared in that first post my hopes that Acquia would accomplish two things: (i) form a company that supported me in providing leadership to the Drupal community and achieving my vision for Drupal and (ii) establish a company that would be to Drupal what Ubuntu or Red Hat were to Linux.

Acquia com marchAn early version of Acquia.com, with our original logo and tagline. March 2008.

The importance of enduring values

It was at an offsite in late 2007 where we determined our corporate values. I'm proud to say that we've held true to those values that were scribbled onto our whiteboard 10 years ago. The leading tenant of our mission was to build a company that would "empower everyone to rapidly assemble killer websites".

Acquia vision

In January 2008, we had six people on staff: Gábor Hojtsy (Principal Acquia engineer, Drupal 6 branch maintainer), Kieran Lal (Acquia product manager, key Drupal contributor), Barry Jaspan (Principal Acquia engineer, Drupal core developer) and Jeff Whatcott (Vice President of Marketing). Because I was still living in Belgium at the time, many of our meetings took place screen-to-screen:

Typical work day

Opening our doors for business

We spent a majority of the first year building our first products. Finally, in September of 2008, we officially opened our doors for business. We publicly announced commercial availability of the Acquia Drupal distribution and the Acquia Network. The Acquia Network would offer subscription-based access to commercial support for all of the modules in Acquia Drupal, our free distribution of Drupal. This first product launched closely mirrored the Red Hat business model by prioritizing enterprise support.

We quickly learned that in order to truly embrace Drupal, customers would need support for far more than just Acquia Drupal. In the first week of January 2009, we relaunched our support offering and announced that we would support all things related to Drupal 6, including all modules and themes available on drupal.org as well as custom code.

This was our first major turning point; supporting "everything Drupal" was a big shift at the time. Selling support for Acquia Drupal exclusively was not appealing to customers, however, we were unsure that we could financially sustain support for every Drupal module. As a startup, you have to be open to modifying and revising your plans, and to failing fast. It was a scary transition, but we knew it was the right thing to do.

Building a new business model for open source

Exiting 2008, we had launched Acquia Drupal, the Acquia Network, and had committed to supporting all things Drupal. While we had generated a respectable pipeline for Acquia Network subscriptions, we were not addressing Drupal's biggest adoption challenges; usability and scalability.

In October of 2008, our team gathered for a strategic offsite. Tom Erickson, who was on our board of directors, facilitated the offsite. Red Hat's operational model, which primarily offered support, had laid the foundation for how companies could monetize open source, but we were convinced that the emergence of the cloud gave us a bigger opportunity and helped us address Drupal's adoption challenges. Coming out of that seminal offsite we formalized the ambitious decision to build "Acquia Gardens" and "Acquia Fields". Here is why these two products were so important:

Solving for scalability: In 2008, scaling Drupal was a challenge for many organizations. Drupal scaled well, but the infrastructure companies required to make Drupal scale well was expensive and hard to find. We determined that the best way to help enterprise companies scale was by shifting the paradigm for web hosting from traditional rack models to the then emerging promise of the Cloud.

Solving for usability: In 2008, Wordpress and Ning made it really easy for people to start blogging or to set up a social network. At the time, Drupal didn't encourage this same level of adoption for non-technical audiences. Acquia Gardens was created to offer an easy on-ramp for people to experience the power of Drupal, without worrying about installation, hosting, and upgrading. It was one of the first times we developed an operational model that would offer "Drupal-as-a-service".

Acquia roadmap

Fast forward to today, and Acquia Fields was renamed Acquia Hosting and later Acquia Cloud. Acquia Gardens became Drupal Gardens and later evolved into Acquia Cloud Site Factory. In 2008, this product roadmap to move Drupal into the cloud was a bold move. Today, the Cloud is the starting point for any modern digital architecture. By adopting the Cloud into our product offering, I believe Acquia helped establish a new business model to commercialize open source. Today, I can't think of many open source companies that don't have a cloud offering.

Tom Erickson takes a chance on Acquia

Tom joined Acquia as an advisor and a member of our Board of Directors when Acquia was founded. Since the first time I met Tom, I always wanted him to be an integral part of Acquia. It took some convincing, but Tom eventually agreed to join us full time as our CEO in 2009. Jay Batson, Acquia's founding CEO, continued on as the Vice President at Acquia responsible for incubating new products and partnerships.

Moving from Europe to the United States

In 2010, after spending my entire life in Antwerp, I decided to move to Boston. The move would allow me to be closer to the team. A majority of the company was in Massachusetts, and at the pace we were growing, it was getting harder to help execute our vision all the way from Belgium. I was also hoping to cut down on travel time; in 2009 flew 100,000 miles in just one year (little did I know that come 2016, I'd be flying 250,00 miles!).

This is a challenge that many entrepreneurs face when they commit to starting their own company. Initially, I was only planning on staying on the East Coast for two years. Moving 3,500 miles away from your home town, most of your relatives, and many of your best friends is not an easy choice. However, it was important to increase our chances of success, and relocating to Boston felt essential. My experience of moving to the US had a big impact on my life.

Building the universal platform for the world's greatest digital experiences

Entering 2010, I remember feeling that Acquia was really 3 startups in one; our support business (Acquia Network, which was very similar to Red Hat's business model), our managed cloud hosting business (Acquia Cloud) and Drupal Gardens (a WordPress.com based on Drupal). Welcoming Tom as our CEO would allow us to best execute on this offering, and moving to Boston enabled me to partner with Tom directly. It was during this transformational time that I think we truly transitioned out of our "founding period" and began to emulate the company I know today.

The decisions we made early in the company's life, have proven to be correct. The world has embraced open source and cloud without reservation, and our long-term commitment to this disruptive combination has put us at the right place at the right time. Acquia has grown into a company with over 800 employees around the world; in total, we have 14 offices around the globe, including our headquarters in Boston. We also support an incredible roster of customers, including 16 of the Fortune 100 companies. Our work continues to be endorsed by industry analysts, as we have emerged as a true leader in our market. Over the past ten years I've had the privilege of watching Acquia grow from a small startup to a company that has crossed the chasm.

With a decade behind us, and many lessons learned, we are on the cusp of yet another big shift that is as important as the decision we made to launch Acquia Field and Gardens in 2008. In 2016, I led the project to update Acquia's mission to "build the universal platform for the world's greatest digital experiences". This means expanding our focus, and becoming the leader in building digital customer experiences. Just like I openly shared our roadmap and strategy in 2009, I plan to share our next 10 year plan in the near future. It's time for Acquia to lay down the ambitious foundation that will enable us to be at the forefront of innovation and digital experience in 2027.

A big thank you

Of course, none of these results and milestones would be possible without the hard work of the Acquia team, our customers, partners, the Drupal community, and our many friends. Thank you for all your hard work. After 10 years, I continue to love the work I do at Acquia each day — and that is because of you.

June 24, 2017

The second edition of BSides Athens was planned this Saturday. I already attended the first edition (my wrap-up is here) and I was happy to be accepted as a speaker for the second time!  This edition moved to a new location which was great. Good wireless, air conditioning and food. The day was based on three tracks: the first two for regular talks and the third one for the CTP and workshops. The “boss”, Grigorios Fragkos introduced the 2nd edition. This one gave more attention to a charity program called “the smile of the child” which helps Greek kids to remain in touch with tmosthe new technologies. A specific project is called “ODYSSEAS” and is based on a truck that travels across Greek to educate kids to technologies like mobile phones, social networks, … The BSides Athens donated to this project. A very nice initiative that was presented by Stefanos Alevizos who received a slot of a few minutes to describe the program (content in Greek only).


The keynote was assigned to Dave Lewis who presented “The Unbearable Lightness of Failure”. The main fact explained by Dave is that we fail but…we learn from our mistakes! In other words, “failure is an acceptable teaching tool“. The keynote was based on many facts like signs. We receive signs everywhere and we must understand how to interpret them or the famous Friedrich Nietzsche’s quote: “That which does not kill us makes us stronger“. We are facing failures all the time. The last good example is the Wannacry bad story which should never happen but… You know the story! Another important message is that we don’t have to be afraid t fail. We also have to share as much as possible not only good stories but also bad stories. Sharing is a key! Participate in blogs, social networks, podcasts. Break out of your silo! Dave is a renowned speaker and delivered a really good keynote!

Then talks were split across the two main rooms. For the first one, I decided to attend the Thanissis Diogos’s presentation about “Operation Grand Mars“. In January 2017, Trustwave published an article which described this attack. Thanassis came back on this story with more details. After a quick recap about what is incident management, he reviewed all the fact related to the operation and gave some tips to improve abnormal activities on your network. It started with an alert generated by a workstation and, three days later, the same message came from a domain controller. Definitively not good! The entry point was infected via a malicious Word document / Javascript. Then a payload was download from Google docs which is, for most of our organizations, a trustworthy service. Then he explained how persistence was achieved (via autorun, scheduled tasks) and also lateral movements. The pass-the-hash attack was used. Another tip from Thanissis: if you see local admin accounts used for network logon, this is definitively suspicious! Good review of the attack with some good tips for blue teams.

My next choice was to move to the second track to follow Konstantinos Kosmidis‘s talk about machine learning (a hot topic today in many conferences!). I’m not a big fan of these technologies but I was interested in the abstract. The talk was a classic one: after an introduction to machine learning (that we already use every day with technologies like the Google face recognition, self-driving card or voice-recognition), why not apply this technique to malware detection. The goal is to: detect, classify but, more important, to improve the algorithm! After reviewing some pro & con, Konstantinos explained the technique he used in his research to convert malware samples into images. But, more interesting, he explained a technique based on steganography to attack this algorithm. The speaker was a little bit stressed but the idea looks interesting. If you’re interested, have a look at his Github repository.

Back to the first track to follow Professor Andrew Blyth with “The Role of Professionalism and Standards in Penetration Testing“. The penetration testing landscape changed considerably in the last years. We switched to script kiddies search for juicy vulnerabilities to professional services. The problem is that today some pentest projects are required not to detect security issues and improve but just for … compliance requirements. You know the “checked-case” syndrome. Also, the business evolves and is requesting more insurance. The coming GDP European regulation will increase the demand in penetration tests.  But, a real pentest is not a Nessus scan with a new logo as explained Andrew! We need professionalism. In the second part of the talk, Andrew reviewed some standards that involve pentests: iCAST, CBEST, PCI, OWASP, OSSTMM.

After a nice lunch with Greek food, back to talks with the one of Andreas Ntakas and Emmanouil Gavriil about “Detecting and Deceiving the Unknown with Illicium”. They are working for one of the sponsors and presented the tool developed by their company: Illicium. After the introduction, my feeling was that it’s a new honeypot with extended features.  Not only, they are interesting stuff but, IMHO, it was a commercial presentation. I’d expect a demo. Also, the tool looks nice but is dedicated to organization that already reached a mature security level. Indeed, before defeating the attacker, the first step is to properly implement basic controls like… patching! What some organizations still don’t do today!

The next presentation was “I Thought I Saw a |-|4><0.-” by Thomas V. Fisher.  Many interesting tips were provided by Thomas like:

  • Understand and define “normal” activities on your network to better detect what is “abnormal”.
  • Log everything!
  • Know your business
  • Keep in mind that the classic cyber kill-chain is not always followed by attackers (they don’t follow rules)
  • The danger is to try to detect malicious stuff based on… assumptions!

The model presented by Thomas was based on 4 A’s: Assess, Analyze, Articulate and Adapt! A very nice talk with plenty of tips!

The next slot was assigned to Ioannis Stais who presented his framework called LightBulb. The idea is to build a framework to help in bypassing common WAF’s (web application firewalls). Ioannis explained first how common WAF’s are working and why they could be bypassed. Instead of testing all possible combinations (brute-force), LightBuld relies on the following process:

  • Formalize the knowledge in code injection attacks variations.
  • Expand the knowledge
  • Cross check for vulnerabilities

Note that LightBulb is available also as a BurpSuipe extension! The code is available here.

Then, Anna Stylianou presented “Car hacking – a real security threat or a media hype?“. The last events that I attended also had a talk about cars but they focused more on abusing the remote control to open doors. Today, it focuses on ECU (“Engine Control Unit”) that are present in modern cars. Today a car might have >100 ECU’s and >100 millions lines of code which means a great attack surface! They are many tools available to attack a car via its CAN bus, even the Metasploit framework can be used to pentest cars today! The talk was not dedicated to a specific attack or tools but was more a recap of the risks that cars manufacturers are facing today. Indeed, threats changed:

  • theft from the car (breaking a window)
  • theft of the cat
  • but today: theft the use of the car (ransomware)

Some infosec gurus also predict that autonomous cars will be used as lethal weapons! As cars can be seen as computers on wheels, the potential attacks are the same: spoofing, tampering, repudiation, disclosure, DoS or privilege escalation issues.

The next slot was assigned to me. I presented “Unity Makes Strength” and explained how to improve interconnections between our security tools/applications. The last talk was performed by Theo Papadopoulos: A “Shortcut” to Red Teaming. He explained how .LNK files can be a nice way to compromize your victim’s computer. I like the “love equation”: Word + Powershell = Love. Step by step, Theo explained how to build a malicious document with a link file, how to avoid mistakes and how to increase chances to get the victim infected. I like the persistence method based on assigning a popular hot-key (like CTRL-V) to shortcut on the desktop. Windows will trigger the malicious script attached to the shortcut and them… execute it (in this case, paste the clipboard content). Evil!

The day ended with the CTF winners announce and many information about the next edition of BSides Athens. They already have plenty of ideas! It’s now time for some off-days across Greece with the family…

[The post BSides Athens 2017 Wrap-Up has been first published on /dev/random]

June 22, 2017

I published the following diary on isc.sans.org: “Obfuscating without XOR“.

Malicious files are generated and spread over the wild Internet daily (read: “hourly”). The goal of the attackers is to use files that are:

  • not know by signature-based solutions
  • not easy to read for the human eye

That’s why many obfuscation techniques exist to lure automated tools and security analysts… [Read more]

[The post [SANS ISC] Obfuscating without XOR has been first published on /dev/random]

June 21, 2017

[Updated 23/06 to reflect newer versions 2.1.2 and 2.2.1]

Heads-up: Autoptimize 2.2 has just been released with a slew of new features (see changelog) and an important security-fix. Do upgrade as soon as possible.

If you prefer not to upgrade to 2.2 (because you prefer the stability of 2.1.0), you can instead download 2.1.2, which is identical to 2.1.0 except that the security fix has been backported.

I’ll follow up on the new features and on the security issue in more detail later today/ tomorrow.

June 20, 2017

The placing of your state is the only really important thing in architecture.

The post MariaDB MaxScale 2.1 defaulting to IPv6 appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

This little upgrade caught me by surprise. In a MaxScale 2.0 to 2.1 upgrade, MaxScale changes the default bind address from IPv4 to IPv6. It's mentioned in the release notes as this;

MaxScale 2.1.2 added support for IPv6 addresses. The default interface that listeners bind to was changed from the IPv4 address 0.0.0.0 to the IPv6 address ::. To bind to the old IPv4 address, add address=0.0.0.0 to the listener definition.

Upgrading MariaDB MaxScale from 2.0 to 2.1

The result is pretty significant though, because authentication in MySQL is often host or IP based, with permissions being granted like this.

$ SET PASSWORD FOR 'xxx'@'10.0.0.1' = PASSWORD('your_password');

Notice the explicit use of IP address there.

Now, after a MariaDB 2.1 upgrade, it'll default to an IPv6 address for authentication, which gives you the following error message;

$ mysql -h127.0.0.1 -P 3306 -uxxx -pyour_password
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'xxx'@'::ffff:127.0.0.1' (using password: YES)

Notice how 127.0.0.1 turned into ::ffff:127.0.0.1? That's an IPv4 address being encapsulated in an IPv6 address. And it'll cause MySQL authentication to potentially fail, depending on how you assigned your users & permissions.

To fix, you can either;

  • Downgrade MaxScale from 2.1 back to 2.0 (add the 2.0.6 repositories for your OS and downgrade MaxScale)
  • Add the address=0.0.0.0 config the your listener configuration in /etc/maxscale.cnf

In case of your MaxScale listeners, this should be enough to resolve the problem.

$ cat maxscale.cnf
[listener_1]
type=listener
service=...
protocol=...
address=0.0.0.0
port=...

Hope this helps!

The post MariaDB MaxScale 2.1 defaulting to IPv6 appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

June 18, 2017

In February we spent a weekend in the Arctic Circle hoping to see the northern lights. I've been so busy, I only now got around to writing about it.

We decided to travel to Nellim for an action-packed weekend with outdoor adventure, wood fires, reindeer and no WiFi. Nellim, is a small Finnish village, close to the Russian border and in the middle of nowhere. This place is a true winter wonderland with untouched and natural forests. On our way to the property we saw a wild reindeer eating on the side of the road. It was all very magical.

Beautiful log cabin bed

The trip was my gift to Vanessa for her 40th birthday! I reserved a private, small log cabin instead of the main lodge. The log cabin itself was really nice; even the bed was made of logs with two bear heads carved into it. Vanessa called them Charcoal and Smokey. To stay warm we made fires and enjoyed our sauna.

Dog sledding
Dog sledding
Dog sledding

One day we went dog sledding. As with all animals it seems, Vanessa quickly named them all; Marshmallow, Brownie, Snickers, Midnight, Blondie and Foxy. The dogs were so excited to run! After 3 hours of dog sledding in -30 C (-22 F) weather we stopped to warm up and eat; we made salmon soup in a small make-shift shelter that was similar to a tepee. The tepee had a small opening at the top and there was no heat or electricity.

The salmon soup was made over a fire, and we were skeptical at first how this would taste. The soup turned out to be delicious and even reminded us of the clam chowder that we have come to enjoy in Boston. We've since remade this soup at home and the boys also enjoy it. Not that this blog will turn into a recipe blog, but I plan to publish the recipe with photos at some point.

Tippy by night
Campfire in the snow

At night we would go out on "aurora hunts". The first night by reindeer sled, the second night using snowshoes, and the third night by snowmobile. To stay warm, we built fires either in tepees or in the snow and drank warm berry juice.

Reindeer sledding
Reindeer sledding

While the untouched land is beautiful, they definitely try to live off the land. The Fins have an abundance of berries, mushrooms, reindeer and fish. We gladly admit we enjoyed our reindeer sled rides, as well as eating reindeer. We had fresh mushroom soup made out of hand-picked mushrooms. And every evening there was an abundance of fresh fish and reindeer offered for dinner. We also discovered a new gin, Napue, made from cranberries and birch leaves.

In the end, we didn't see the Northern Lights. We had a great trip, and seeing them would have been the icing on the cake. It just means that we'll have to come back another time.

June 17, 2017

Let's look how easy it is to implement a simple cookie based language switch in the rocket web framework for the rust programming language. Defining the language type:

In this case there will be support for Dutch and English. PartialEq is derived to be able to compare Lang items with ==.

The Default trait is implemented to define the default language:

The FromStr trait is implemented to allow creating a Lang item from a string.

The Into<&'static str> trait is added to allow the conversion in the other direction.

Finally the FromRequest trait is implemented to allow extracting the "lang" cookie from the request.

It always succeeds and falls back to the default when no cookie or an unknown language is is found. How to use the Lang constraint on a request:

And the language switch page:

And as a cherry on the pie, let's have the language switch page automatically redirect to the referrer. First let's implement a FromRequest trait for our own Referer type:

When it finds a Referer header it uses the content, else the request is forwarded to the next handler. This means that if the request has no Referer header it is not handled, and a 404 will be returned.
Finally let's update the language switch request handler:

Pretty elegant. A recap with all code combined and adding the missing glue:

June 16, 2017

Pourquoi les abus financiers des politiciens sont inévitables dans une démocratie représentative

À chaque fois que quelqu’un se décide à creuser les dépenses du monde politique, des scandales éclatent. La conclusion facile est que les politiciens sont tous pourris, qu’il faut voter pour ceux qui ne le sont pas. Ou qui promettent de ne pas l’être.

Pourtant, depuis que la démocratie représentative existe, cela n’a jamais fonctionné. Et si c’était le système lui-même qui rendait impossible une gestion saine de l’argent public ?

Selon Milton Friedman, il n’y a que 4 façons de dépenser de l’argent : dépenser son argent pour soi, son argent pour les autres, l’argent des autres pour soi, l’argent des autres pour les autres.

Son argent pour soi

Lorsqu’on dépense l’argent qu’on a gagné, on optimise toujours le rendement pour obtenir le plus possible en dépensant le moins possible. Vous réfléchissez à deux fois avant de faire de grosses dépenses, vous comparez les offres, vous planifiez, vous calculez l’amortissement même de manière intuitive.

Si vous dépensez de l’argent inutilement, vous vous en voudrez, vous vous sentirez soit coupable de négligence, soit floué par d’autres.

Son argent pour les autres

Si l’intention de dépenser pour d’autres est toujours bonne, vous ne prêterez généralement pas toujours attention à la valeur que les autres recevront. Vous fixez généralement le budget qui vous semble socialement acceptable pour ne pas paraître pour un radin et vous dépensez ce budget de manière assez arbitraire.

Il y’a de grandes chances que votre cadeau ne plaise pas autant qu’il vous a couté, qu’il ne réponde pas à un besoin important ou immédiat voire, même, qu’il finisse directement à la poubelle.

Économiquement, les cadeaux et les surprises sont rarement une bonne idée. Néanmoins, comme vous tentez généralement de ne pas dépasser un budget donné, les dommages économiques sont faibles. Et, parfois, un cadeau fait extrêmement plaisir. Idée : offrez un ForeverGift !

L’argent d’autrui pour soi

Lorsqu’on peut dépenser sans compter, par exemple lorsque votre entreprise couvre tous vos frais de voyages ou que vous avez une carte essence, l’optimisation économique devient catastrophique.

En fait, ce cas de figure relève même généralement de l’anti-optimisation. Vous allez sans remords choisir un vol qui vous permet de dormir une heure plus tard même s’il est plus cher de plusieurs centaines d’euros que le vol matinal. Dans les cas extrêmes, vous allez tenter de dépenser le plus possible, même inutilement, pour avoir l’impression d’obtenir plus que votre salaire nominal.

Cette anti-optimisation peut être compensée par plusieurs facteurs : un sentiment de devoir moral vis-à-vis de l’entreprise, surtout dans les petites structures, ou une surveillance des notes de frais voire un plafond.

Le plafond peut cependant avoir un effet inverse. Si un employé bénéficie d’une carte essence avec une limite, par exemple de 2000 litres par an, il va avoir tendance à rouler plus ou à partir en vacances avec la voiture pour utiliser les 2000 litres auxquels il estime avoir droit.

C’est la raison pour laquelle cette situation économique est très rare et devrait être évitée à tout pris.

L’argent d’autrui pour les autres

Par définition, les instances politiques sont dans ce dernier cas de figures. Les politiciens sont en effet à la tête d’une énorme manne d’argent récoltée de diverses manières chez les citoyens. Et ils doivent décider comment les dépenser. Voir comment augmenter encore plus la manne, par exemple avec de nouveaux impôts.

Comme je l’ai expliqué dans un précédent billet, gagner de l’argent est l’objectif par défaut de tout être humain dans notre société.

Les politiciens vont donc tout naturellement tenter de bénéficier par tous les moyens possibles de la manne d’argent dont ils sont responsables. Chez les plus honnêtes, cela se fera inconsciemment mais cela se fera quand même, de manière indirecte. Pour les plus discrets, le politicien pourra par exemple accorder des marchés publics sans recevoir aucun bénéfice immédiat mais en se créant un réseau de relation lui permettant de siéger par après dans de juteux conseils d’administration. Pour les plus cyniques, de véritables systèmes seront mis en place, ce que j’appelle des boucles d’évaporation, permettant de transférer, le plus souvent légalement, l’argent public vers les poches privées.

Tout cela étant complètement opaque et noyé dans la bureaucratie, il est généralement impossible pour le citoyen de faire le lien entre l’euro qu’il a payé en impôt et l’euro versé de manière scandaleuse à certains politiciens. Surtout que la notion de “scandaleux” est subjective. À partir de quand un salaire devient-il scandaleux ? À partir de combien d’administrateurs une intercommunale devient-elle une machine à payer les amis et à évaporer l’argent public ? À partir de quel degré de connaissance un politicien ne peut-il plus engager sa famille et ses amis ou les faire bénéficier d’un contrat public ?

Les politiciens sont nos employés à qui nous fournissons une carte de crédit illimitée, sans aucun contrôle et avec le pouvoir d’émettre de nouvelles cartes pour leurs amis.

Que faire ?

Il ne faut donc pas s’empresser de voter pour ceux qui se promettent moins pourris que les autres. S’ils ne le sont pas encore, cela ne devrait tarder. Le pouvoir corrompt. Fréquenter des riches et d’autres politiciens qui font tous la même chose n’aide pas à garder la tête froide. Ces comportements deviennent la norme et les limites fixées par la loi ne sont, tout comme la carte essence sus-citée, plus des limites mais des dûs auxquels ils estiment avoir légitimement le droit. En cas de scandale, ils ne comprendront même pas ce qu’on leur reproche en se réfugiant derrière le « C’est légal ». Ce que nous pensons être une corruption du système n’en est en fait que son aboutissement mécanique le plus logique !

La première étape d’une solution consiste par exiger la transparence totale des dépenses publiques. Le citoyen devrait être en mesure de suivre les flux financiers de chaque centime public jusqu’au moment où il arrive dans une poche privée. L’argent public versé à chaque mandataire devrait être public. S’engager en politique se ferait avec la connaissance qu’une partie de notre vie privée devient transparente et que toutes les rémunérations seront désormais publiques, sans aucune concession.

Cela demande beaucoup d’effort de simplification mais, avec un peu de volonté, c’est aujourd’hui tout à fait possible. Les budgets secrets devraient être dûment budgétisé et justifié afin que le public puisse au moins suivre leur évolution au cours du temps.

Curieusement, cela n’est sur le programme d’aucun politicien…

 

Billet rédigé en collaboration avec Mathieu Jamar. Photo par feedee P.

Vous avez aimé votre lecture ? Soutenez l’auteur sur Tipeee, Patreon, Paypal ou Liberapay. Même un don symbolique fait toute la différence ! Retrouvons-nous ensuite sur Facebook, Medium, Twitter ou Mastodon.

Ce texte est publié sous la licence CC-By BE.

June 14, 2017

I published the following diary on isc.sans.org: “Systemd Could Fallback to Google DNS?“.

Google is everywhere and provides free services to everyone. Amongst the huge list of services publicly available, there are the Google DNS, well known as 8.8.8.8, 8.8.4.4 (IPv4) and 2001:4860:4860::8888, 2001:4860:4860::8844 (IPv6)… [Read more]

 

[The post [SANS ISC] Systemd Could Fallback to Google DNS? has been first published on /dev/random]

June 13, 2017

Recently, I got the chance to assist a team of frontend and back-end developers to do a bit of open heart surgery. The scope of the project is as follows, migrate a BBOM monolith towards a new BSS system but keep the frontend part, and convert another web frontend and one mobile app to the same BSS system. To facilitate this, and because it’s common sense, the decision was made to create our own REST API in between. But, we were faced with an issue. Time is limited and we wanted to start creating everything at once. Without a working API implementation and the need for a defined interface, we decided to look for a tool to assist us in this process.

Gotta have swag

We began to create our API using API Blueprint in Apiary, but that soon turned out to be quite annoying because of a few reasons. One, everything exists within the same file. This implies the file grows quite large once you start adding endpoints, examples and responses. Secondly, there’s no nice way to start working on this as a team, unless you get a Standard Plan. We could debate about whether or not migrating to another plan would have solved our problem, but let’s be honest, I’d rather invest in the team than spend it on unnecessary tooling.

I began a venture to migrate this to another tool, and eventually ended up playing with Swagger. First off, Swagger also supports yaml, which is a great way to describe these things. Secondly, the ecosystem is a bit more mature which allows us to do things API Blueprint does not provide, such as split the specification into smaller parts. I found this great blog post by Mohsen Azimi which explains exactly this, and following his example, I added a compile.js file that collects the .yaml references and combines those into one big swagger.json file.

The advantages are interesting as we can now split the Swagger specification into folders for context and work on different parts without creating needless overhead all the time, like merge conflicts for example. To make sure we know the changes comply with the Swagger definition, I added a check after compiling swagger.json using swagger-parser to validate the output. Combined with a docker container to do the compilation and validation, we’ve got ourself a nice way to proceed with certainty. Adding this to a CI is peanuts, as we can use the same docker image to run all the necessary checks. The project is currently being built using Travis, you can find a sample .travis.yml file in the repository.

The setup of the project is as follows. The explanation of the components is listed inline, be aware I only listed the parts which need an explanation. Refer to the repository for a complete overview.

.
├── definitions // the data model used by the API
|   ├── model.yaml // model definition
|   └── index.yaml // list of model definitions
├── examples // sample json output
|   ├── sample.json
|   └── second_sample.json
├── parameters
|   ├── index.yaml // header and query string parameters
├── paths
|   ├── path.yaml // path definition
|   └── index.yaml / list of path definitions
├── swagger-ui // folder containing custom Swagger-UI
├── gulpfile.js // build and development logic
├── makefile // quick access to commands
└── swagger.yaml // swagger spec base file

While this sample contains model, path and parameter definitions in the root of each sub folder, nothing stops you from creating more folders to structure the definitions inside. As the compile function in gulpfile.js (previously compile.js) takes care of stitching the YAML files into one JSON spec, it can be as flexible as you want. The makefile contains a few handy commands so everyone can use the project without the need for specific setup or docker knowledge.

To change the spec you can use any editor of choice, I have Visual Studio Code setup together with the Swagger Viewer plugin. This way I can work on the spec and have it preview in a tab next to me. In case I need to validate the changes, I can also use the pre-configured validate task to quickly get feedback in my editor console. The tasks are added to the project to get you started using Visual Studio Code. If you do, make sure to also add a key binding to spawn the tasks. Open keybindings.json and enter the following (change the key combo if needed).

    {
        "key": "ctrl+shift+r",
        "command": "workbench.action.tasks.runTask"
    }

On top of that, one of my colleagues, Joeri Hendrickx, extended the setup by creating a watch function inside the gulpfile.js file that automatically reloads changes in Swagger-UI while you adjust files. This way, there’s no need for a specific setup and you can use any editor you like. As an extra bonus, it will also display the errors on top of the page.

To run the swagger specification, use the make swagger command or the swagger task in Visual Studio Code. By default, Swagger UI will be available at localhost:3000, unless you specify another port using the SWAGGER_PORT environment variable. To enable the watch function, make use of the make watch command or watch task in Visual Studio Code.

Are you mocking me?

This leaves us with one open item. How do we create a mock service using our Swagger specification? As it turns out, there’s a very useful tool out there called Prism that does just that. Part of the Stoplight tool set, their CLI tool allows you to create a mock server by simply using a Swagger spec. This provides you with all you need to design, test and move fast.

The docker image has been extended to also pull in the latest version of Prism and add it to our path. You can run the mock server through the make mock command or the mock task in Visual Studio Code. By default, the mock server will run on localhost:8010, unless you specify another port using the PRISM_PORT environment variable.

Starting the mock server prints the available endpoints. You now have the ability to start developing and use the mocked API, or validate your work via Postman, curl or any http request tool of choice. Using this repository, the curl following command will output a mocked result.

curl -X GET http://localhost:8010/v1/ping -H 'authorization: Basic trololol'

If for any reason you need to debug inside the container, you can use the make interactive command. This will open a shell inside the container for you to mess around in. I never needed it until now, but it’s there. Just in case.

The setup we have at work currently uses Jenkins to validate the spec which is deployed to Heroku every time the build on master succeeds (which is, well, every time). This way we have a single place of truth when it comes to our Swagger specification and accompanying mock service for developers or partners to play with. We can prototype fast while collecting feedback, or change current implementations fast and knowing the impact. Our production API is tested against the Swagger specification, which is integrated in that repository as a submodule to decouple designing and implementation. To get a more behavioral representation of a real API, we created middleware in Python which can keep track of the data you send and respond accordingly for certain processes. Changes to this part are also validated against the specification in order to reduce the chance of creating errors.

Feel free to mess around, ask questions or even create issues and pull requests on GitHub and let me know what you think. And stay tuned for Part II which covers technical documentation!

Source code

June 12, 2017

CoreOS Fest 2017 happened earlier this month in San Francisco. I had the joy of attending this conference. With a vendor-organized conference there’s always the risk of it being mostly a thinly-veiled marketing excercise, but this didn’t prove to be the case: there was a good community and open-source vibe to it, probably because CoreOS itself is for the most part an open-source company.

Not bad for a view

Also fun was encountering a few old-time GNOME developers such as Matthew Garrett (now at Google) and Chris Kühl (who now runs kinvolk). It’s remarkable how good of a talent incubator the GNOME project is. Look at any reasonably successful project and chances are high you’ll find some (ex-)GNOME people.

Main room

I also had the pleasure of presenting the experiences and lessons learned related to introducing Kubernetes at Ticketmatic. Annotated slides and a video of the talk can be found here.

Making your company cloud‑native: the Ticketmatic story


Comments | More on rocketeer.be | @rubenv on Twitter

June 10, 2017

June 09, 2017

Here is my wrap-up for the last day. Hopefully, after the yesterday’s social event, the organisers had the good idea to start later… The first set of talks was dedicated to presentation tools.

The first slot was assigned to Florian Maury, Sébastien Mainand: “Réutilisez vos scripts d’audit avec PacketWeaver”. When you are performed audit, the same tasks are already performed. And, as we are lazy people, Florian & Sébastien’s idea was to automate such tasks. They can be to get a PCAP, to use another tool like arpspoof, to modify packets using Scapy, etc… The chain can quickly become complex. By automating, it’s also more easy to deploy a proof-of-concept or a demonstration. The tool used a Metasploit-alike interface. You select your modules, you execute them but you can also chain them: the output of script1 is used as input of script2. The available modules are classified par ISO layer:

  • app_l7
  • datalink_l2
  • network_l3
  • phy_l1
  • transport_l4

The tool is available here.

The second slot was about “cpu_rec.py”. This tool has been developed to help in the reconnaissance of architectures in binary files. A binary file contains instructions to be executed by a CPU (like ELF or PE files). But not only files. It is also interesting to recognise firmware’s or memory dumps. At the moment, cpu_rec.py recognise 72 types of architectures. The tool is available here.

And we continue with another tool using machine learning. “Le Machine Learning confronté aux contraintes opérationnelles des systèmes de détection” presented by Anaël Bonneton and Antoine Husson. The purpose is to detect intrusions based on machine learning. The classic approach is to work with systems based on signatures (like IDS). Those rules are developed by experts but can quickly become obsolete to detect newer attacks. Can machine learning help? Anaël and Antoine explained the tool that that developed (“SecuML”) but also the process associated with it. Indeed, the tool must be used in a first phase to learning from samples. The principle is to use a “classifier” that takes files in input (PDF, PE, …) and return the conclusions in output (malicious or not malicious). The tool is based on the scikit-learn Python library and is also available here.

Then, Eric Leblond came on stage to talk about… Suricata of course! His talk title was “À la recherche du méchant perdu”. Suricata is a well-known IDS solution that don’t have to be presented. This time, Eric explained a new feature that has been introduced in Suricata 4.0. A new “target” keyword is available in the JSON output. The idea arise while a blue team / read team exercise. The challenge of the blue team was to detect attackers and is was discovered that it’s not so easy. With classic rules, the source of the attack is usually the source of the flow but it’s not always the case. A good example of a web server returned an error 4xx or 5xx. In this case, the attacker is the destination. The goal of the new keyword is to be used to produce better graphs to visualise attacks. This patch must still be approved and merge in the code. It will also required to update the rules.

The next talk was the only one in English: “Deploying TLS 1.3: the great, the good and the bad: Improving the encrypted web, one round-trip at a time” by Filippo Valsorda & Nick Sullivan. After a brief review of the TLS 1.2 protocol, the new version was reviewed. You must know that, if TLS 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 were very close to each others, TLS 1.3 is a big jump!. Many changes in the implementation were reviewed. If you’re interested here is a link to the specifications of the new protocol.

After a talk about crypto, we switched immediately to another domain which also uses a lot of abbreviations: telecommunications. The presentation was performed by  Olivier Le Moal, Patrick Ventuzelo, Thomas Coudray and was called “Subscribers remote geolocation and tracking using 4G VoLTE enabled Android phone”. VoLTE means “Voice over LTE” and is based on VoIP protocols like SIP. This protocols is already implemented by many operators around the world and, if your mobile phone is compatible, allows you to perform better calls. But the speakers found also some nasty stuff. They explained how VoLTE is working but also how it can leak the position (geolocalization) of your contact just by sending a SIP “INVITE” request.

To complete the first half-day, a funny presentation was made about drones. For many companies, drones are seen as evil stuff and must be prohibited to fly over some  places. The goal of the presented tool is just to prevent drones to fly over a specific place and (maybe) spy. There are already solutions for this: DroneWatch, eagles, DroneDefender or SkyJack. What’s new with DroneJack? It focuses on drones communicating via Wi-Fi (like the Parrot models). Basically, a drone is a flying access point. It is possible to detected them based on their SSID’s and MAC addresses using a simple airodump-ng. Based on the signal is it also possible to estimate how far the drone is flying. As the technologies are based on Wi-Fi there is nothing brand new. If you are interested, the research is available here.

When you had a lunch, what do you do usually? You brush your teeth. Normally, it’s not dangerous but if your toothbrush is connected, it can be worse! Axelle Apvrille presented her research about a connected toothbrush provided by an health insurance company in the USA. The device is connected to a smart phone using a BTLE connection and exchange a lot of data. Of course, without any authentication or any other security control. The toothbrush even continues to expose his MAC address via bluetooth all the tile (you have to remove the battery to turn it off). Axelle did not attached the device itself with reverse the mobile application and the protocol used to communicate between the phone and the brush. She wrote a small tool to communicate with the brush. But she also write an application to simulate a rogue device and communicate with the mobile phone. The next step was of course to analyse the communication between the mobile app and the cloud provided by the health insurance. She found many vulnerabilities to lead to the download of private data (up to picture of kids!). When she reported the vulnerability, her account was just closed by the company! Big fail! If you pay your insurance less by washing your teeth correctly, it’s possible to send fake data to get a nice discount. Excellent presentation from Axelle…

To close the event, the ANSSI came on stage to present a post-incident review of the major security breach that affected the French TV channel TV5 in 2015. Just to remember you, the channel was completely compromised up to affecting the broadcast of programs for several days. The presentation was excellent for everybody interested in forensic investigation and incident handling. In a first part, the timeline of all events that lead to the full-compromise were reviewed. To resume, the overall security level of TV5 was very poor and nothing fancy was used to attack them: contractor’s credentials used, lack of segmentation, default credentials used, expose RDP server on the Internet etc. An interesting fact was the deletion of firmwares on switches and routers that prevented them to reboot properly causing a major DoS. They also deleted VM’s. The second part of the presentation was used to explain all the weaknesses and how to improve / fix them. It was an awesome presentation!

My first edition of SSTIC is now over but I hope not the last one!

[The post SSTIC 2017 Wrap-Up Day #3 has been first published on /dev/random]

June 08, 2017

Here is my wrap-up for the second day. From my point of view, the morning sessions were quite hard with a lot of papers based on hardware research.

Anaïs Gantet started with “CrashOS : recherche de vulnérabilités système dans les hyperviseurs”. The motivations behind this research are multiple: virtualization of computers is everywhere today, not only on servers but also on workstations. The challenge for the hypervisor (the key component of a virtualization system) is to simulate the exact same hardware platform (same behaviour) for the software. It virtualizes access to the memory and devices. But do they do this in the right way? Hypervisors are software and software have bugs. The approach explained by Anaïs is to build a very specific light OS that could perform a bunch of tests, like fuzzing, against hypervisors. The name of this os is logically “CrashOS“. It proposes an API that is used to script test scenarios. Once booted, tests are executed and results are sent to the display but also to the serial port for debugging purposes. Anaïs demonstrated some tests. Up to today, the following hypervisors have been tested: Ramooflax (project developed by Airbus Security), VMware and Xen. Some tests that returned errors:

  • On VMware, a buffer overflow and crash of the VM when writing a big buffer to COM1.
  • On Xen, a “FAR JMP” instruction should generate a “general protection” failure but it’s not the case.

CrashOS is available here. A nice presentation to start the day!

The next presentation went deeper and focused again on the hardware, more precisely, the PCI Express that we find in many computers. The title was “ProTIP: You Should Know What To Expect From Your Peripherals” by Marion Daubignard, Yves-Alexis Perez. Why could it be interesting to keep an eye on our PCIe extensions? Because they all run some software and have usually a direct access to the host computer resources like memory (for performance reasons). What if the firmware of your NIC could contain some malicious code and search for data in the memory? They describe the PCIe standard which can be seen as a network with CPU, memory, a PCI hierarchy (a switch) and a root complex. How to analyse all the flows passing over a PCIe network? The challenge is to detect the possible paths and alternatives. The best language to achieve this is Prolog (a very old language that I did not use since my study) but still alive. The tool is called “ProTIP” for “Prolog Tester for Information Flow in PCIe networks” and is available here. The topic was interesting when you realise what a PCIe extension could do.

Then, we got a presentation from Chaouki Kasmi, José Lopes Esteves, Mathieu Renard, Ryad Benadjila: “From Academia to Real World: a Practical Guide to Hitag-2 RKE System Analysis“. The talk was dedicated to the Hitag-2 protocols used by “Remote Keyless Entry” with our modern cars. Researches in this domain are not brand new. There was already a paper on it presented at Usenix. The talk really focussing on Hitag-2 (crypto) and was difficult to follow for me.

After the lunch break, Clémentine Maurice talked about accessing the host memory from a browser with Javascript: “De bas en haut : attaques sur la microarchitecture depuis un navigateur web“. She started with a deeply detailed review of how the DRAM memory is working and how to read operations make use a “row buffer” (like a cache). The idea is to be able to detect key presses in the URL bar of Firefox. The amount of work is pretty awesome from an educational point of view but I’ve just one question: how to use this in the real world? If you’re interested, Clémentine published all her publications are available here.

The next talk was interesting for people working on the blue team side. Binacle is a tool developed to make a full-text search on binaries. Guillaume Jeanne explained why full-text search is important and how it fails with classic methods to index binary files. The goal is not only to index “strings” like IP addresses, FQDN but also suite of bytes. After testing several solutions, he found a good one which is not too resources consuming. The tool and his features were explained, with the Yara integration (also a feature to generate new signatures). To be tested for sure! Binacle is available here.

The next tool presented by YaCo: “Rétro-Ingénierie Collaborative” by Benoît Amiaux, Frédéric Grelot, Jérémy Bouétard, Martin Tourneboeuf, Valerian Comiti. YaCo means “Yet another collaborative tool”. The idea is to add a “multi-user” layer to the IDA debugger. By default, users have a local DB used by IDA. The idea is to sync those databases via a Gitlab server. The synchronisation is performed via a Python plugin. They made a cool demo. YaCo is available here.

Sibyl was the last tool presented today by Camille Mougey. Sibyl helps to identify libraries used in the malicious code. Based on Miasm2, it identifies functions and their side effect. More information is available on the Github repository.

The next talk was about the Android platform: “Breaking Samsung Galaxy Secure Boot through Download mode” presented by Frédéric Basse. He explained the attacks that can be launched against the bootloader of a Samsung Galaxy smartphone via a bug.

Finally, a non-technical talk presented by Martin Untersinger: “Oups, votre élection a été piratée… (Ou pas)”. Martin is a journalist working for the French newspaper “Le Monde”. He already spoke at SSTIC two years ago and came back today to give his view of the “buzz” around the hacking of the election processes around the world. Indeed, today when elections are organised, there are often rumours that this democratic process has been altered due to state-sponsored hackers. It started in the US and also reached France with the Macronleak. A first fact reported by Martin is that information security goes today way beyond the “techies”… Today all the citizens are aware that bad things may happen. It’s not only a technical issue but also a geopolitical issue. Therefore, it is very interesting for journalists. Authorities do not always disclose information about the attribution of the attack because it can be wrong and alter the democratic process of elections. Today documents are published but the attribution remains a political decision. It touchy and may lead to diplomatic issues. Journalists are also facing challenges:

  • Publish leaked docs or not?
  • Are they real or fake?
  • Ignore the information or maybe participle to the disinformation campaign?

But it is clear that good a communication is a key element.

The day closed with the second rump sessions with a lot of submissions (21!). Amongst them, some funny ideas like using machine learning to generate automatic submissions of paper to the SSTIC call for paper, an awesome analysis of the LinkedIn leaked passwords, connected cars, etc… Everybody moved to the city centre to attend the social event with nice food, drinks and lot of interesting conversations.

Today, a lot of tools were presented. The balance between the two types of presentation is interesting. Indeed, if pure security research is interesting, sometimes it is very difficult to use it in the real context of an information system. However, presented tools were quick talks with facts and solutions that can be easily implemented.

[The post SSTIC 2017 Wrap-Up Day #2 has been first published on /dev/random]

June 07, 2017

I’m in Rennes, France to attend my very first edition of the SSTIC conference. SSTIC is an event organised in France, by and for French people. The acronym means “Symposium sur la sécurité des technologies de l’information et des communications“. The event has a good reputation about its content but is also known to have a very strong policy to sell tickets. Usually, all of them are sold in a few minutes, spread across 3 waves. I was lucky to get one this year. So, here is my wrap-up! This is already the fifteen edition with a new venue to host 600 security people. A live streaming is also available and a few hundred people are following talks remotely.

The first presentation was performed by  Octave Klaba who’s the CEO of the OVH operator. OVH is a key player on the Internet with many services. It is known via the BGP AS16276. Octave started with a complete overview of the backbone that he build from zero a few years ago. Today, it has a capacity of 11Tpbs and handles 2500 BGP sessions. It’s impressive how this CEO knows his “baby”. The next part of the talk was a deep description of their solution “VAC” deployed to handle DDoS attacks. For information, OVH is handler ~1200 attacks per day! They usually don’t communicate with them, except if some customers are affected (the case of Mirai was provided as an example by Octave). They chose the name “VAC” for “Vacuum Cleaner“. The goal is to clean the traffic as soon as possible before it enters the backbone. An interesting fact about anti-DDoS solutions: it is critical to detect them as soon as possible. Why? Let’s assume that your solution detects a DDoS within x seconds, attackers will launch attacks of less than x seconds. Evil! The “VAC” can be seen as a big proxy and is based on multiple components that can filter specific types of protocols/attacks. Interesting: to better handle some DDoS, the OVH teams reversed some gaming protocols to better understand how they work. Octave described in deep details how the solution has been implemented and is used today… for any customer! This is a free service! It was really crazy to get so many technical details from a… CEO! Respect!

The second talk was “L’administration en silo” by Aurélien Bordes and focused on some best practices for Windows services administration. Aurélien started with a fact: When you ask a company how is the infrastructure organised, they speak usually about users, data, computers, partners but… they don’t mention administrative accounts. From where and how are managed all the resources? Basically, they are three categories of assets. They can be classified based on colours or tiers.

  • Red: resources for admins
  • Yellow: core business
  • Green: computers

The most difficult layer to protect is… the yellow one. After some facts about the security of AD infrastructure,  Aurélien explained how to improve the Kerberos protocol. The solution is based on FAST, a framework to improve the Kerberos protocol. Another interesting tool developed by Aurélien: The Terminal Server Security Auditor. Interesting presentation but my conclusion is that in increase the complexity of Kerberos which is already not easy to master.

During the previous talk, Aurélien presented a slide with potential privilege escalation issues in an Active Directory environment. One of them was the WSUS server. It’s was the topic of the research presented by Romain Coltel and Yves Le Provost. During a pentest engagement, they compromised a network “A” but they also discovered a network “B” completely disconnected from “A”. Completely? Not really, there were WSUS servers communicating between them. After a quick recap of the WSUS server and its features, they explained how they compromised the second network “B” via the WSUS server. Such a server is based on three major components:

  • A Windows service to sync
  • A web service web to talk to clients (configs & push packages)
  • A big database

This database is complex and contains all the data related to patches and systems. Attacking a WSUS server is not new. In 2015, there was a presentation at BlackHat which demonstrated how to perform a man-in-the-middle attack against a WSUS server. But today, Romain and Yves used another approach. They wrote a tool to directly inject fake updates in the database. The important step is to use the stored procedures to not break the database integrity. Note that the tool has a “social engineering” approach and fake info about the malicious patch can be injected too to entice the admin to allow the installation of the fake patch on the target system(s). To be deployed, the “patch” must be a binary signed by Microsoft. Good news, plenty of tools are signed and can be used to perform malicious tasks. They use the tool psexec for the demo:

psexec -> cmd.exe -> net user /add

The DB being synced between different WSUS servers, it was possible to compromise the network “B”. The tool they developed to inject data into the WSUS database is called WUSpendu. A good recommendation is to put WSUS servers in the “red” zone (see above) and to consider them as critical assets. Very interesting presentation!

After two presentations focusing on the Windows world, back to the UNIX world and more precisely Linux with the init system called systemd. Since it was implemented in major Linux distribution, systemd has been the centre of huge debates between the pro-initd and pro-systemd. Same for me, I found it not easy to use, it introduces complexity, etc… But the presentation gave nice tips that could be used to improve the security of daemons started via systemd. A first and basic tip is to not use the root account but many new features are really interesting:

  • seccomp-bpf can be used to disable access to certain syscalls (like chroot() or obsolete syscalls)
  • capacities can be disabled (ex: CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE)
  • name spaces mount (ex: /etc/secrets is not visible by the service)

Nice quick tips that can be easily implemented!

The next talk was about Landlock by Michael Salaün. The idea is to build a sandbox with unprivileged access rights and to run your application in this restricted space. The perfect example that was used by Michael is a multi-media player. This kind of application includes many parsers and is, therefore, a good candidate to attacks or bugs. The recommended solution is, as always, to write good (read: safe) code and the sandbox must be seen as an extra security control. Michael explained how the sandbox is working and how to implement it. The example with the media player was to allow it to disable write access to the filesystem except if the file is a pipe.

After the lunch, a set of talks was scheduled around the same topic: analysis of code. If started with “Static Analysis and Run-time Assertion checking” by Dillon Pariente, Julien Signoles. The presented Frama-C a framework of C code analysis.

Then Philippe Biondi, Raphaël Rigo, Sarah Zennou, Xavier Mehrenberger presented BinCAT (“Binary Code Analysis Tool”). It can analyse binaries (x86 only) but will never execute code. Just by checking the memory, the register and much other stuff, it can deduce a program behaviour. BinCAT is integrated into IDA. They performed a nice demo of a keygen tool. BinCAT is available here and can also be executed in a Docker container. The last talk in this set was “Désobfuscation binaire: Reconstruction de fonctions virtualisées” by Jonathan Salwan, Marie-Laure Potet, Sébastien Bardin. The principle of the binary protection is to make a binary more difficult to analyse/decode but without changing the original capabilities. This is not the same as a packer. Here there is some kind of virtualization that emulates proprietary bytecode. Those three presentations represented a huge amount of work but were too specific for me.

Then, Geoffroy CoupriePierre Chifflier presented “Writing parsers like it is 2017“. Writing parsers is hard. Just don’t try to write your own parser, you’ll probably fail. But parsers are available in many applications. They are hard to maintain (old code, handwritten, hard to test & refactor). Issues based on parsers can have huge security impacts, just remember the Cloudbleed bleed bug! The proposed solution is to replace classic parsers by something stronger. The criteria’s are: must be memory safe, called by / can call C code and, if possible, no garbage collection process. RUST is a language made to develop parsers like nom. To test it, it has been used in projects like the VLC player and the Suricata IDS. Suricata was a good candidate with many challenges: safety, performance. The candidate protocol was TLS. About VLC and parser, the recent vulnerability affecting the subtitles parser is a perfect example why parsers are critical.

The last talk of the day was about caradoc. Developed by the ANSSI (French agency), it’s a toolbox able to decode PDF files. The goal is not to extract and analyse potentially malicious streams from PDF files. Like the previous talk, the main idea was to avoid parsing issues. After reviewing the basics of the PDF file format, Guillaume Endignoux, Olivier Levillain made two demos. The first one was to open the same PDF file within two readers (Acrobat and Fox-It). The displayed content was not the same. This could be used in phishing campaigns or to defeat the analyst. The second demo was a malicious PDF file that crashed Fox-It but not Adobe (DDoS). Nice tool.

The day ended with a “rump” session (also called lighting talks by other conferences). I’m really happy with the content of the first day. Stay tuned for more details tomorrow! If you want to follow live talks, the streaming is available here.

[The post SSTIC 2017 Wrap-Up Day #1 has been first published on /dev/random]

Many organizations struggle with the all-time increase in IP address allocation and the accompanying need for segmentation. In the past, governing the segments within the organization means keeping close control over the service deployments, firewall rules, etc.

Lately, the idea of micro-segmentation, supported through software-defined networking solutions, seems to defy the need for a segmentation governance. However, I think that that is a very short-sighted sales proposition. Even with micro-segmentation, or even pure point-to-point / peer2peer communication flow control, you'll still be needing a high level overview of the services within your scope.

In this blog post, I'll give some insights in how we are approaching this in the company I work for. In short, it starts with requirements gathering, creating labels to assign to deployments, creating groups based on one or two labels in a layered approach, and finally fixating the resulting schema and start mapping guidance documents (policies) toward the presented architecture.

June 06, 2017

In this post I review the source code of the Ayreon software. Well, actually not. This is a review of The Source, a progressive rock/metal album from the band Ayreon. Yes really. Much wow omg.

Overall rating

This album is awesome.

Like every Ayreon album, The Source features a crapton of singers each portraying a character in the albums story, with songs always featuring multiple of them, often with interleaving lines. The mastermind behind Ayreon is Arjen Anthony Lucassen, who for each album borrows some of the most OP singers and instrumentalists from bands all over the place. Hence if you are a metal or rock fan, you are bound to know some of the lineup.

What if you are not into those genres? I’ve seen Arjen described as a modern day Mozart and some of his albums as works of art. Art that can be appreciated even if you otherwise are not a fan of the genre.

Some nitpicks

The lyrics, while nice, are to me not quite as epic as those in the earlier Ayreon album 01011001. A high bar to set, since 01 is my favorite Ayreon album. (At least when removing 2 tracks from it that I really do not like. Which is what I did years ago so I don’t remember what they are called. Which is bonus points for The Source, which has no tracks I dislike.) One of the things I really like about it is that some of the lyrics have characters with opposite moral or emotional stances debate which course of action to take.

These are some of the lyrics of The Fifth Extinction (a song from 01011001), with one singers lines in green italics and the other in red normal font:

I see a planet, perfect for our needs
behold our target, a world to plant our seeds
There must be life
first remove any trace of doubt!
they may all die
Don’t you think we should check it out?
We have no choice, we waited far too long
this is our planet, this is where they belong.
We may regret this,
is this the way it’s supposed to be?
A cold execution, a mindless act of cruelty!

I see mainly reptiles
A lower form or intelligence
mere brainless creatures
with no demonstrable sentience
What makes us superior
We did not do so great ourselves!
A dying race, imprisoned in restricted shells

<3

The only other nitpick I have is that the background tone in Star of Sirrah is kinda annoying when paying attention to the song.

Given my potato sophistication when it comes to music, I can’t say much more about the album. Go get a copy, it’s well worth the moneys.

The story

Now we get to the real reason I’m writing this review, or more honestly, this rant. If you’re not a Ayreon fanboy like me, this won’t be interesting for you (unless you like rants). Spoilers on the story in The Source ahead.

In summary, the story in The Source is as follows: There is a human civilization on a planet called Alpha and they struggle with several ecological challenges. To fix the problems they give control to Skynet (yes I will call it that). Skynet shuts everything down so everyone dies. Except a bunch of people who get onto a spaceship and find a home on a new planet to start over again. The story focuses on these people, how they deal with Skynet shutting everything down, their coming together, their journey to the new planet and how they begin new lives there.

Originality

It’s an OK story. A bit cheesy and not very original. Arjen clearly likes the “relying on machines is bad” topic, as evidenced by 01011001 and Victims of the Modern Age (Star One). When it comes to originally in similar concept albums I think 01011001 does a way better job. Same goes for Cybion (Kalisia), which although focuses on different themes and is not created by Arjen (it does feature him very briefly), has a story with similar structure. (Perhaps comparing with Cybion is a bit mean, since that bar is so high it’s hidden by the clouds.)

Consistency

Then there are some serious WTFs in the story. For instance planet Alpha blows up after some time because of the quantum powercore melting down due to the cooling systems being deactivated. Why would Skynet let that happen? If it can take on an entire human civilization surely it knows what such deactivation will result into? Why would it commit suicide, and fail its mission to deal with the ecological issues? Of course, this is again a bit nitpicky. Logic and consistency in the story are not the most important thing on such an album of course. Still, it bugs me.

Specificness

Another difference with 01011001 is that story in The Source is more specific about things. If it was not, a lot of the WTFs would presumably be avoided, and you’d be more free to use your imagination. 01011001 tells the story of an Aquatic race called the Forever and how they create human kind to solve their wee bit of an apathy problem. There are no descriptions of what the Forever look like, beyond them being an Aquatic race, and no description of what their world and technology looks like beyond the very abstract.

Take this line from Age of Shadows, the opening song of 01011001:

Giant machines blot out the sun

When I first heard this song this line gave me the chills, as I was imagining giant machines in orbit around the systems star (kinda like a Dyson swarm) or perhaps just passing in between the planet and the star, still at significant distance from the planet. It took some months for me to realize that the lyrics author probably was thinking of surface based machines, which makes them significantly less giant and cool. The lyrics don’t specify that though.

The Ayreon story

Everything I described so far are minor points to me. What really gets me is what The Source does to the overall Ayreon story. Let’s recap what it looked like before The Source:

The Forever lose their emotions and create the human race to fix themselves. Humanity goes WW3 and blows itself up, despite the Forever helping them to avoid this fate, and perhaps due to the Forevers meddling to accelerate human evolution. Still, the Forever are able to awaken their race though the memories of the humans.

Of course this is just a very high level description, and there is much more to it then that. The Source changes this. It’s a prequel to 01011001 and reveals that the Forever are human, namely the humans that fled Alpha… Which turns the high level story into:

Humans on Alpha fuck their environment though the use of technology and then build Skynet. Some of them run away to a new planet (the water world they call Y) and re-engineer themselves to live there. They manage to fuck themselves with technology again and decide to create a new human race on earth. Those new humans also fuck themselves with technology.

So to me The Source ruins a lot of the story from the other Ayreon albums. Instead of having this alien race and the humans, each with their own problems, we now have just humans, who manage to fuck themselves over 3 times in a row and win the universes biggest tards award. Great. #GrumpyJeroenIsGrumpy

Conclusion

Even with all the grump, I think this is an awesome album. Just don’t expect too much from the story, which is OK, but definitely not as great as the rest of the package. Go buy a copy.

June 02, 2017

I published the following diary on isc.sans.org: “Phishing Campaigns Follow Trends“.

Those phishing emails that we receive every day in our mailboxes are often related to key players in different fields (…) But the landscape of online services is ever changing and new actors (and more precisely their customers) become new interesting targets. Yesterday, while hunting, I found for the first time a phishing page trying to lure the Bitcoin operator: BlockChain. Blockchain[1] is a key player in the management of digital assets… [Read more]

[The post [SANS ISC] Phishing Campaigns Follow Trends has been first published on /dev/random]

June 01, 2017

I published the following diary on isc.sans.org: “Sharing Private Data with Webcast Invitations“.

Last week, at a customer, we received a forwarded email in a shared mailbox. It was somebody from another department that shared an invitation for a webcast “that could be interesting for you, guys!”. This time, no phishing attempt, no malware, just a regular email sent from a well-known security vendor. A colleague was interested in the webcast and clicked on the registration link… [Read more]

[The post [SANS ISC] Sharing Private Data with Webcast Invitations has been first published on /dev/random]

Every spring, members of Acquia's Product, Engineering and DevOps teams gather at our Boston headquarters for "Build Week". Build Week gives our global team the opportunity to meet face-to-face, to discuss our product strategy and roadmap, to make plans, and to collaborate on projects.

One of the highlights of Build Week is our annual Hackathon; more than 20 teams of 4-8 people are given 48 hours to develop any project of their choosing. There are no restrictions on the technology or solutions that a team can utilize. Projects ranged from an Amazon Dash Button that spins up a new Acquia Cloud environment with one click, to a Drupal module that allows users to visually build page layouts, or a proposed security solution that would automate pen testing against Drupal sites.

This year's projects were judged on innovation, ship-ability, technical accomplishment and flair. The winning project, Lift HoloDeck, was particularly exciting because it showcases an ambitious digital experience that is possible with Acquia and Drupal today. The Lift Holodeck takes a physical experience and amplifies it with a digital one using augmented reality. The team built a mobile application that superimposes product information and smart notifications over real-life objects that are detected on a user's smartphone screen. It enables customers to interact with brands in new ways that improve a customer's experience.

Lift holodeck banner

At the hackathon, the Lift HoloDeck Team showed how augmented reality can change how both online and physical storefronts interact with their consumers. In their presentation, they followed a customer, Neil, as he used the mobile application to inform his purchases in a coffee shop and clothing store. When Neil entered his favorite coffee shop, he held up his phone to the posted “deal of the day”. The Lift HoloDeck application superimposes nutrition facts, directions on how to order, and product information on top of the beverage. Neil contemplated the nutrition facts before ordering his preferred drink through the Lift HoloDeck application. Shortly after, he received a notification that his order was ready for pick up. Because Acquia Lift is able to track Neil's click and purchase behavior, it is also possible for Acquia Lift to push personalized product information and offerings through the Lift HoloDeck application.

Check out the demo video, which showcases the Lift HoloDeck prototype:

The Lift HoloDeck prototype is exciting because it was built in less than 48 hours and uses technology that is commercially available today. The Lift HoloDeck experience was powered by Unity (a 3D game engine), Vuforia (an augmented reality library), Acquia Lift (a personalization engine) and Drupal as a content store.

The Lift HoloDeck prototype is a great example of how an organization can use Acquia and Drupal to support new user experiences and distribution platforms that engage customers in captivating ways. It's incredible to see our talented teams at Acquia develop such an innovative project in under 48 hours; especially one that could help reshape how customers interact with their favorite brands.

Congratulations to the entire Lift HoloDeck team; Ted Ottey, Robert Burden, Chris Nagy, Emily Feng, Neil O'Donnell, Stephen Smith, Roderik Muit, Rob Marchetti and Yuan Xie.

May 30, 2017

Comparatif des matelas Tediber, Eve et Ilobed

Lorsqu’il est devenu urgent de changer de matelas, plutôt que de me rendre dans un magasin de literie, je me suis tout naturellement tourné vers le web, curieux de voir ce qui se faisait en la matière.

J’y ai découvert que le matelas était un domaine grouillant d’activités avec des startups comme Tediber, Eve, Ilobed et Oscarsleep. Mais quel est le rapport entre un matelas et Internet ? Quel avantage à acheter un matelas sur le web ?

Rassurez-vous, pas de matelas connecté ! La particularité de ces startups matelas c’est qu’elles partagent un concept similaire, lancé par Tuft & Needle en 2012 et popularisé par Casper, deux startups américaines. Un modèle de matelas unique livré roulé sous vide, une période d’essai de 100 jours et un remboursement intégral en cas de non-satisfaction.

Contrairement à un matelas de magasin, vous pouvez donc réellement dormir pendant 100 nuits avant de faire votre choix ! Les matelas retournés sont donnés à des associations.

Chaque startup ne propose qu’un seul type de matelas mais en différentes tailles. L’idée est venue au créateur de Casper en réalisant que, dans les hôtels, on dort généralement très bien alors qu’on ne vous demande jamais le type de matelas que vous préférez. Il serait donc possible de créer un matelas « universel ».

Bref, une fois encore Internet prouve que l’on peut innover sans nécessairement faire de la haute technologie ou du tout connecté. Il n’y a même pas d’app mais seulement un concept commercial que je me devais de tester.

Tediber, le bleu nuit

Ne sachant que choisir, les caractéristiques techniques étant très similaires, je me suis tourné vers Twitter où les community managers de Tediber et Eve se sont affrontés un dimanche soir afin de me convaincre.

Ne pouvant tester le matelas, j’ai été séduit par l’image de Tediber : technique mais très classe avec un doux mélange blanc/bleu foncé évoquant pour moi l’apaisement et le sommeil. Le site, très simple et fonctionnel, met en avant le matelas et ses qualités.

Sur Twitter, le community manager de Tediber était très factuel, décrivant son produit. Le compte Eve, par contre, avait tendance à comparer voir à dénigrer les concurrents.

J’ai donc opté pour un matelas Tediber et, autant le dire tout de suite, le produit est magnifique.

La grande force de Tediber, c’est sa housse qui est tout simplement sublime. Du côté du sommier, le matelas est équipée d’une couche antidérapante particulièrement résistante. Du côté du dormeur, le matelas est d’une douceur incomparable et fait regretter d’avoir un drap de lit.

Le matelas est particulièrement moelleux et donne une douce impression de chaleur lorsqu’on s’y enfonce. Ce test ayant été réalisé en hiver, je suis curieux de savoir comment se comporte le matelas lors de fortes chaleurs.

Car, malheureusement, j’ai du renvoyer le matelas Tediber, aussi parfait soit-il. La raison ? Ma compagne, enceinte à l’époque, et moi-même étions aspirés par le centre où notre poids créait une légère dépression.

Peut-être est-ce dû à la taille choisie (140cm de large) ? Quoiqu’il en soit, je décide, un peu à contre-cœur, de renvoyer le matelas Tediber.

La communication, le retour et le remboursement se passent très bien.

Eve, le jaune

Mon second choix se porte en toute logique vers Eve. Comme je partage mon expérience sur Facebook, plusieurs d’entre vous se disent intéressés par un retour d’expérience, que vous êtes justement en train de lire. Je demande alors à Eve s’ils sont disposés à me faire une réduction en échange de mon test.

Ils acceptent de me faire le tarif “membre du personnel” (-30%) et je commande mon matelas Eve.

Contrairement à Tediber, Eve est une déception.

La housse glisse semble faite dans un tissu bon-marché, le jaune est absolument criard. Le matelas est bien moins moelleux que le Tediber mais, au moins, il ne se creuse pas au centre. Pour mon goût, il est soit trop mou, soit trop dur. Je n’arrive pas à trouver les mots mais je ne m’y sens pas bien. Ma compagne avoue avoir le même ressenti, elle qui préfère un matelas ferme.

Deux problèmes m’irritent particulièrement : le matelas glisse sur le sommier et la surface de la housse possède un relief en nid d’abeille que je trouve insupportable, malgré la présence d’une alèse et d’un drap de lit. (Eve m’affirme avoir réglé ces deux problèmes qui étaient des critiques récurrentes)

Bref, je n’aime pas le matelas Eve. Rien que l’idée d’utiliser du jaune pour symboliser le sommeil, quelle horreur !

Je décide de le remballer avec l’alèse que j’avais également commandée. Mais il m’est notifié que l’alèse ne dispose que de 30 jours d’essais, non 100 (la demande de retour ayant été fait aux alentours du 35ème jour). C’est un peu ballot…

Si la communication, le retour et le remboursement se passent bien, je garde un mauvais sentiment de cette expérience. Je n’aime pas les couleurs, le site un peu confus qui insiste plus sur des photos de modèles dénudés que sur le matelas, sur l’approche à la limite de la grosse boite industrielle, un matelas qui est plus beau en photo qu’en vrai. Notons que le site a été récemment simplifié et que les photos se centrent désormais sur le matelas.

Ilobed, le blanc

En désespoir de cause, je me tourne vers Ilobed, le dernier acteur qui n’avait pas participé à la guerre des community managers sur Twitter.

Et pour cause : contrairement aux deux précédents, Ilobed est auto-financé et est beaucoup plus petit. Je suis en contact direct avec Clément, fondateur d’Ilobed, qui répond gentiment à toutes mes questions et me propose 150€ de réduction lorsque je lui annonce écrire cet article. J’avais eu peu d’interaction sur Twitter car lui ne peut se permettre de passer son dimanche sur les réseaux sociaux et c’est très bien comme ça !

C’est également Clément qui me téléphone directement lorsqu’il réalise que ma commande est en Belgique dans une zone où un éventuel retour risque d’être difficile voire impossible. Il préfère me prévenir pour discuter avec moi et j’apprécie la démarche.

Ilobed mise sur le plus simple, moins cher. Le matelas est plus fin car, selon Clément, l’épaisseur n’est qu’un phénomène de mode. La housse est toute blanche, avec un motif agréable.

Des trois, Ilobed est certainement le plus ferme. Et nous y dormons désormais très bien.

Seul gros bémol : il glisse presqu’autant que le matelas Eve. J’ai fini par acheter sur Amazon un sous-matelas antidérapant à 20€ qui a fait des miracles mais c’est dommage. Sans compter que c’est le seul matelas pour lequel l’envers et l’endroit ne sont pas clairs du tout ! Une couche anti-dérapante résoudrait ces deux problèmes.

Le matelas Ilobed n’est clairement pas Tediber, il n’est pas enthousiasmant, il n’est pas moelleux. Mais sa sobriété est peut-être justement son meilleur atout. Et c’est celui que nous avons décidé de garder.

Oscarsleep, le gris foncé

Je me dois de citer Oscarsleep, l’acteur belge du marché du matelas francophone. Oscarsleep était plus cher et proposait un matelas retournables (on peut dormir sur les deux faces). Comme ils n’ont jamais répondu à mes requêtes, je ne l’ai pas testé. Je note cependant que le prix a baissé et que le matelas s’est aligné sur la technologie des 3 autres avec une couche à mémoire de forme du côté du dormeur.

J’avoue, je serais très curieux de l’essayer pour compléter ce test.

Conclusion

Un matelas est quelque chose de très subjectif et je sais que des centaines de personnes adorent leur matelas Eve. Mais je déteste quand ce genre de comparatif se termine par une conclusion qui n’en est pas une, disant que toutes les solutions ont plein de qualités et ne prenant pas un parti ferme.

Du coup, ma conclusion est simple : si le budget n’est pas un problème pour vous, testez Tediber. C’est un matelas enthousiasmant. Si vous avez été déçu par Tediber, si vous cherchez le meilleur rapport qualité prix ou que vous favorisez la sobriété et un matelas ferme, adoptez Ilobed.

Mais le plus important dans cette expérience n’est pas tellement le matelas que j’ai choisi. C’est la réalisation que plus jamais je ne retournerai dans un magasin de literie pour tester un matelas en trois minutes, tout habillé. Désormais, bénéficier de 100 nuits d’essai me semble indispensable avant d’acheter un matelas. Cela parait peut-être anecdotique mais ce genre d’innovations ne cesse de creuser l’écart entre le nouveau monde et les entreprises zombies.

Dans tous les cas, je vous souhaite une bonne nuit !

 

Remarque importante : ce blog est financé par ceux d’entre vous qui m’offrent un prix libre pour chaque série de 5 billets. Cela se passe sur Tipeee ou Patreon et je ne vous remercierai jamais assez pour votre contribution. Ce billet ayant déjà été financé par une réduction de 150€ sur l’achat de mon matelas Ilobed, il n’est pas payant et ne compte pas dans la prochaine série de 5.

 

Photo par Edgar Crook.

Vous avez aimé votre lecture ? Soutenez l’auteur sur Tipeee, Patreon, Paypal ou Liberapay. Même un don symbolique fait toute la différence ! Retrouvons-nous ensuite sur Facebook, Medium, Twitter ou Mastodon.

Ce texte est publié sous la licence CC-By BE.

May 29, 2017

Tonight, I was invited by the OWASP Belgium Chapter (thank you again!) to present “something“. When I accepted the invitation, I did not really have an idea so I decided to compile the findings around my research about webshells. They are common tools used by bad guys: Once they compromized a server, they often install a webshell which is a kind of toolbox or a RAT (“Remote Access Tool”). It’s very interesting to analyze how such interfaces are protected from unauthorized accesses but also the mistakes that are present in their code. This is a very first version and more will come soon!

My slides are available on slideshare.net:

[The post HTTP… For the Good or the Bad has been first published on /dev/random]

Hardware

My old netbook is currently seven years old, and shows its age : boot times up to two minutes, working in Chrome was a drag and took ages. And I'm not even talking about performing updates. All to blame on the slow CPU (never again an Atom !) and the slow hard drive. The last two occasions I used the laptop was on Config Management Days and Red Hat summit, and I can tell you the experience was unpleasant. So a new laptop was needed.

Luckily, the laptop market has reinvented itself after it collapsed during the tablet rise. Ultrabooks are now super slim, super light and extremely powerful. My new laptop needed to be :

  • fast : no Celeron or Atom chip was allowed. An i5 as minimum CPU
  • beautifull : I need a companion to my vanity. No plasticky stuff, well build and good quality.
  • well supportive for Linux : Linux would be installed, so the hardware needed to be supported
  • reasonable cheap : speaks for itself; a lot of nice ultrabooks are available, but I didn't want to pay an arm and a leg.
  • light and small : I carry this everywhere around the world, so the laptop shouldn't weigh more than 1.4kg

Soon, I saw 2 main candidates : first, the Dell XPS13 still is regarded as ultrabook king. It supports Linux nicely, and has that beautiful Infinity display. Disadvantages were that it was on the heavy side, and I wasn't fan of its design either. And a tad on the expensive side as well. On the other side, there was the Asus Zenbook 3 (UX390) which was stunningly beautiful, had a nice screen as well and was extremely light with its 0.9 kg.

However, I saw the silver variant in the shop, but found it a bit on the small side. So when I saw its 14 inch brother, UX430UQ, I was immediately sold. This is a 14 inch laptop - it is advertised as a 13inch laptop with a 14 inch screen, but don't believe that - which is as light as 1.25 kg, has a nice dark grey metal spun outerior and excellent keyboard and screen. Equipped with an i7 CPU and 16GB of RAM, it doesn't fail to deliver on the performance field. Shame that Asus doesn't provide a sleeve with this laptop, as it does with the UX390. Also, important, it doesn't has a safe lock hole, so don't leave this baby unattended.

I wiped the Windows 10 and booted the Fedora netinstall CD, but it seemed that both WiFi and trackpad were unsupported. I lost quite some time with this, but eventually decided to boot it with the Fedora LiveCD, to find out all was working out of the box. Probably the netinstall CD uses an older kernel. I baptised the laptop Millenium Falcon, as I switched to spaceship names on my hardware lately.

DependenciesWhen I need to program something, most of the time I use Perl 5, Go or Perl 6. Which one depends on the existence and maturity of libraries and the deployment strategy (and I must admit, probably my mood). Most applications I write at work are not that big, but they need to be stable and secure. Some end up in production as an extension or addition to the software that is the core of our authentication and authorisation infrastructure. Some programs are managed by other teams, e.g. of sysadmin-type applications like the monitoring of a complex chain of microservices. Finally, proof of concept code is often needed when designing a new architecture. I believe that If your software is cumbersome/fragile to install and maintain, people won’t use it. Or worse, stick with an old version.

Hence, I like CPAN. A lot. I love how easy it is to download, build, test and install Perl 5 libraries. cpanminus made the process even more zero-conf. When not using Docker, tools like App::Fatpacker and Carton can bundle libraries and you end with a mostly self-contained application (thx mst and miyagawa).

Go, a compiled language, took a different path and opted for static binaries. The included (Go) libraries are not downloaded and built when you’re deploying, but when you’re developing. Although this is a huge advantage, I am not too fond of the dependency system: you mostly end up downloading random versions from the master branch of random Github repos (the workaround is using external webservices like gopkg.in, not ideal). The only sane way is to “vendor in” (also with a tool) your dependencies pretty much the same way Carton does: you copy the libs in your repository (but still without versioning). I hear the Go community is working at this, but so far there are only workarounds.

In the Perl 6 world, the zef module manager does provide a kind of cpanminus-like experience. However, in contrast with cpanminus it does this by downloading code from a zillion Github repo’s where the versioning is questionable. The is no clear link between the version fixed in the metadata (META6.json) and branches/tags on the repo. Like mentioned above, Go gets away with this due to static compiling, although the price is high: your projects will have dozens of versions of the same lib, probably even with a different API… and no way to declare the version in the code.

The centralised Perl 5 approach approach is fairly complex. It works because of the maturity of the ecosystem (the “big” modules are pretty stable) and the taken-for-granted testing culture (thank you toolchain and testing people!). Actually, in my opinion, the only projects that really solved the dependency management problem are the Linux & BSD distributions by boxing progress in long release cycles. Developers want the last shiny lib, so that won’t work.

The Perl 6 devs have no static compiling on the agenda, so it’s clear that the random Github repo situation is far from ideal. That’s why I was pretty excited to read on #perl6 that Perl 6 code can now be uploaded to CPAN (with Shoichi Kaji’s mi6) and installed (with Nick Logan’s zef). Today, the Perl 6 ecosystem has neither the maturity of the one of Perl 5 nor its testing culture. The dependency chain can be pretty fragile at times. Working within a central repository with an extensive and mature testing infrastructure will certainly help over time. One place to look for libraries, rate them, find the documentation, and so on. Look at their state and the state of its dependencies. This is huge. But I don’t think that CPAN will fix the problems of a young ecosystem right away. I think there is an opportunity here to build on the shoulders on CPAN, while keeping the advantages of a new language: find out what works.

Personally, I would love to have a built-in packaging solution like Carton –or even App::Fatpacker– out of the box. I think there is something to be said for the “vendoring-in” of the dependencies in the application repo (putting all the dependencies in a directory in the repo). The Perl 6 language/compiler has advantages over Perl 5. You can specify the compiler you target so your code doesn’t break when your compiler (also) targets a more recent milestone (allowing the core devs to advance by breaking stuff). Soon, you’ll be able to You can even load different versions of the same library in the same program (thx for the correction, nine).

The same tool could even vendor (and update) different version of the same library. At “package time” this tool would look at your sources and include only the versions of the libraries that are referenced. The result could be a tar or a directory with everything needed to run your application. As a bonus point, it would be nice to still support random repos for libraries-in-progress or for authors that opted not to use CPAN.

My use case is not everyone’s, so I wonder what people would like to see based on their experience or expectations. I think that now, with the possibility of a CPAN migration, it a good time to think about this. Let’s gather ideas. The implementation is for later :).


Filed under: Uncategorized Tagged: cpan, deployment, golang, Perl, perl6

May 28, 2017

Comment les élus d’Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve semblent vouloir tout faire pour saboter une consultation populaire d’origine citoyenne.

Le 11 juin, dans ma ville d’Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve, se déroulera une consultation populaire. Chaque citoyen de 16 ans ou plus est appelé à se prononcer sur la question « Êtes-vous favorable à une extension du centre commercial ? ».

Demander aux citoyens de se prononcer sur l’avenir de leur ville, cela semble la base d’une société démocratique. Et pourtant, l’incroyable défi que représente cette simple consultation populaire m’emmène à une conclusion terrible mais limpide : les conseillers communaux d’Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve sont soit cruellement incompétents soit prêts à tout pour faire échouer cette consultation populaire.

L’histoire d’une initiative citoyenne

Selon le code belge de la démocratie locale, chaque commune est tenue d’organiser une consultation populaire si le projet est porté par au moins 10% des citoyens dans les communes de plus de 30.000 habitants (32.000 à Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve).

Peu connue, cette loi n’est que rarement utilisée. Le code de la démocratie locale limite d’ailleurs le nombre de consultation possible à 6 par législature de 6 ans avec minimum 6 mois entre chaque et aucune dans les 16 mois avant la prochaine élection communale.

Lorsque le centre commercial L’Esplanade, dont la construction avait déjà suscité de nombreux émois, a annoncé vouloir s’agrandir, un groupe motivé de citoyens s’est lancé dans la récolte de près de 3500 signatures, obligeant les édiles à organiser une consultation populaire.

Les citoyens enterrent le veau d’or lors de la parade des utopies.

Le bourgmestre Jean-Luc Roland, pourtant issu du parti Écolo, étant un grand défenseur du centre commercial, il y’a fort à parier que cette consultation fasse grincer des dents et que son organisation soit faite à contre-cœur. Je n’ai jamais compris cet engouement politique pour le centre commercial de la part d’un écologiste mais Monsieur Roland ne s’en cache pas.

L’histoire complète de cette consultation populaire est narrée avec force humour et détails par Stéphane Vanden Eede, conseiller CPAS Écolo de la ville.

Les oublis de la brochure officielle

Comme le stipule le code de la démocratie locale, la commune a fait parvenir aux habitants une brochure explicative détaillant l’enjeu et les modalités de la consultation populaire.

Surprise de taille : la brochure insiste plusieurs fois lourdement sur le fait que la participation à la consultation n’est pas obligatoire (contrairement aux élections).

Mais il n’est nul part indiqué que s’il n’y a pas au moins 10% de participation, les urnes ne seront même pas ouvertes ! Si 3200 citoyens de plus de 16 ans ne se déplacent pas, la consultation n’aura servi à rien. Au contraire, le message envoyé sera : « Nous, citoyens, ne voulons pas choisir ». Et oui, on compte bien 10% de la population, enfants compris, ce qui signifie que près de 15% des électeurs doivent participer.

Cette information me semble cruciale et je trouve particulièrement dommage qu’elle ait été omise de la brochure.

Moralité : quel que soit votre avis, allez voter à tout prix lors des consultations populaires et encouragez votre entourage à faire de même. Il est possible de donner procuration à un autre électeur si vous ne savez pas vous déplacer ce jour là. Le taux de participation est un élément crucial pour faire vivre le processus démocratique.

L’illisibilité du bulletin

La pétition signée par 3500 citoyens demandait une consultation populaire sur une question claire et précise :

« Aujourd’hui, le propriétaire de L’esplanade envisage d’agrandir sa surface commerciale. Êtes-vous favorable à une extension du centre commercial ? »

Cependant, un comité de conseillers communaux présidé par Michel Beaussart, échevin de la participation citoyenne, a décidé de rajouter 20 questions sur le bulletin de vote !

Ces 20 questions supplémentaires rendent le bulletin complètement illisible. La question principale, seule qui ait de l’importance, est reléguée sur un tout petit espace en haut à droit et il est facile de la manquer !

Les réactions de citoyens confrontés au bulletin de vote démontrent une confusion certaine : Quelle est la question principale qui a de la valeur ? Est-ce grave si certaines de mes réponses sont en contradiction l’une avec l’autre ? Comment seront dépouillées mes réponses ? À la phrase « Il n’y a pas de nécessité d’agrandir le centre commercial et d’augmenter l’offre commerciale. », je dois répondre oui ou non si je suis contre ?

Force est de constater que si on avait voulu embrouiller les citoyens, on ne s’y serait pas pris autrement. Je pense que si le taux de votes blancs à la première question est important, on pourra sans hésiter accuser la rédaction du bulletin. Ce long bulletin de vote risque également de ralentir le processus et de décourager d’éventuels votants en rallongeant inutilement les files.

L’impossibilité de dépouiller les bulletins

Toute personne un peu au fait de la sociologie vous le dira : rédiger une enquête d’opinion est un travail difficile. La méthodologie d’interprétation des résultats doit être étudiée, testée et validée.

Quand je vois un tel bulletin, je suis très curieux de savoir quel sera le protocole de dépouillement et d’interprétation des résultats.

Toutes les personnes que j’ai consulté m’ont confirmé l’amateurisme apparent de ce formulaire. Si 10.000 citoyens se rendent aux urnes et remplissent consciencieusement les 21 questions, la commune sera tout simplement assise sur une masse de données inexploitable.

Ces 20 questions ne servent donc à rien. Si ce n’est à rendre le bulletin particulièrement illisible, induire les électeurs en erreur et rallonger les files.

Un vote qui n’est plus secret

Mais là où l’incompétence est la plus tangible, c’est que ces 20 questions supplémentaires annulent l’anonymat du vote. Le code de la démocratie locale exige que le vote soit secret. Or, avec un tel bulletin, il ne l’est plus.

En effet, outre la question principale (la seule qui ait de la valeur), il y’a 2^20 bulletins possibles. Ce qui fait plus d’un million !

Il est possible pour une personne mal intentionnée de faire pression pour imposer un vote.

Exemple concret : un employeur annonce à ses 100 employés qu’il exige d’eux de voter pour l’agrandissement du centre commercial. À chaque employé, il donne une combinaison unique de réponses aux 20 questions. Par exemple « 9 oui – 1 non – 9 oui – 1 non ».

Le patron annonce alors que ses agents vont assister au dépouillement et guetter les bulletins qui suivront cette combinaison pour vérifier le vote des employés.

Si aucun bulletin ne répond à cette combinaison, l’employé est viré. Si le ou les bulletins correspondant sont tous contre l’extension, l’employé est viré.

Bien sûr, il est possible que plusieurs bulletins aient la même combinaison. Mais comme il y’a un million de combinaison pour maximum 10.000 ou 20.000 votants, la probabilité d’avoir la même combinaison est d’une pour cent ou une pour cinquante !

Sans compter que certaines combinaisons sont illogiques et que le patron peut accorder le bénéfice du doute si deux bulletins ont la même combinaison mais que l’un est pour et l’autre contre.

Le 11 juin, ne votez que pour la toute première question, bien cachée en haut à droite. Laissez les autres blanches !

Alors, incompétence ou malveillance ?

Sans être un expert en la matière et sans avoir suivi le dossier de près, j’ai relevé ces problèmes essentiels en quelques minutes à peine.

En conséquence, je suis forcé d’accuser publiquement Michel Beaussart, échevin de la participation citoyenne et tous les conseillers communaux qui ont validé ce bulletin d’être soit incompétents soit malveillants par rapport à l’organisation de cette consultation populaire.

Si Monsieur Beaussart me répond être de bonne foi, ce que je présume, il doit adresser les 3 points que j’ai soulevé, notamment en publiant un protocole validé d’interprétation des résultats.

Faute de réponse correcte, je pense que toute personne un peu soucieuse de la démocratie comprendra qu’il est indispensable de modifier d’urgence le bulletin de vote pour que celui-ci ne comporte que la question initialement demandée par la pétition.

En tant qu’échevin en charge, cette modification incombe à Monsieur Beaussart. Selon ma lecture amateur du code de la démocratie locale, rien ne s’oppose à la modification du bulletin de vote en dernière minute.

Un bulletin de vote difficilement lisible et ne permettant pas de garantir le secret du vote est un manquement gravissime au bon fonctionnement démocratique et devrait entraîner la nullité des résultats.

Si l’incompétence me semble dramatique, je peux reconnaître que l’erreur de bonne foi est humaine et excusable lorsqu’il y’a une volonté de réparer son erreur. Faute de cette volonté, les électeurs seront forcés de tirer la seule conclusion qui s’impose : il ne s’agit plus d’une erreur mais d’un acte délibéré de saboter le processus démocratique par ceux-là même qui ont été élus pour nous représenter. Ou, au mieux, le camouflage irresponsable d’une incompétence dangereuse.

Dans tous les cas, j’invite les électeurs à faire de cette consultation du 11 juin un véritable succès de participation, à ne répondre qu’à la première question et à se souvenir des réactions à cet argumentaire lorsqu’ils voteront en 2018. Et à se demander si le régime sous lequel nous vivons est bel et bien une démocratie.

Photo de couverture par Manu K.

Vous avez aimé votre lecture ? Soutenez l’auteur sur Tipeee, Patreon, Paypal ou Liberapay. Même un don symbolique fait toute la différence ! Retrouvons-nous ensuite sur Facebook, Medium, Twitter ou Mastodon.

Ce texte est publié sous la licence CC-By BE.

May 25, 2017

Updated: 20170419: gnome-shell extension browser integration.
Updated: 20170420: natural scrolling on X instead of Wayland.
Updated: 20170512: better support for multi monitor setups.
Updated: 20170525: add “No TopLeft Hot Corner”, use upstream “Top Icons Plus” instead of the one in the repos.

Introduction

Mark Shuttleworth, founder of Ubuntu and Canonical, dropped a bombshell: Ubuntu drops Unity 8 and –by extension– also the Mir graphical server on the desktop. Starting from the 18.04 release, Ubuntu will use Gnome 3 as the default Desktop environment.

Sadly, the desktop environment used by millions of Ubuntu users –Unity 7– has no path forward now. Unity 7 runs on the X.org graphical stack, while the Linux world –including Ubuntu now– is slowly but surely moving to Wayland (it will be the default on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS). It’s clear that Unity has its detractors, and it’s true that the first releases (6 years ago!) were limited and buggy. However, today, Unity 7 is a beautiful and functional desktop environment. I happily use it at home and at work.

Soon-to-be-dead code is dead code, so even as a happy user I don’t see the interest in staying with Unity. I prefer to make the jump now instead of sticking a year with a desktop on life support. Among other environments, I have been a full time user of CDE, Window Maker, Gnome 1.*, KDE 2.*, Java Desktop System, OpenSolaris Desktop, LXDE and XFCE. I’ll survive :).

The idea of these lines is to collect changes I felt I needed to make to a vanilla Ubuntu Gnome 3 setup to make it work for me. I made the jump 1 week before the release of 17.04, so I’ll stick with 17.04 and skip the 16.10 instructions (in short: you’ll need to install gnome-shell-extension-dashtodock from an external source instead of the Ubuntu repos).

The easiest way to make the use Gnome on Ubuntu is, of course, installing the Ubuntu Gnome distribution. If you’re upgrading, you can do it manually. In case you want to remove Unity and install Gnome at the same time:
$ sudo apt-get remove --purge ubuntu-desktop lightdm && sudo apt-get install ubuntu-gnome-desktop && apt-get remove --purge $(dpkg -l |grep -i unity |awk '{print $2}') && sudo apt-get autoremove -y

Changes

Add Extensions:

  1. Install Gnome 3 extensions to customize the desktop experience:
    $ sudo apt-get install -y gnome-tweak-tool gnome-shell-extension-dashtodock gnome-shell-extension-better-volume gnome-shell-extension-refreshwifi gnome-shell-extension-disconnect-wifi
  2. Install the gnome-shell integration (the one on the main Ubuntu repos does not work):
    $ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ne0sight/chrome-gnome-shell && sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install chrome-gnome-shell
  3. Install the “Multi-monitor add-on“, the “Top Icon Plus” (we use an upstream version op the previous two extensension because the ones on the Ubuntu repos are buggy), the “Not Topleft Hot Corner” (a must in a multi-monitor setup) and the “Refresh wifi” extensions. You’ll need to install a browser plugin. Refresh the page after installing the plugin.
  4. Log off in order to activate the extensions.
  5. Start gnome-tweak-tool and enable “Better volume indicator” (scroll wheel to change volume), “Dash to dock” (a more Unity-like Dock, configurable. I set the “Icon size limit” to 24 and “Behavior-Click Action” to “minimize”), “Disconnect wifi” (allow disconnection of network without setting Wifi to off), “Refresh Wifi connections” (auto refresh wifi list), “Multi monitors add-on” (add a top bar to other monitors) and “Topicons plus” (put non-Gnome icons like Dropbox and pidgin on the top menu).

Change window size and buttons:

  1. On the Windows tab, I enabled the Maximise and Minise Titlebar Buttons.
  2. Make the window top bars smaller if you wish. Just create ~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css with these lines:
    /* From: http://blog.samalik.com/make-your-gnome-title-bar-smaller-fedora-24-update/ */
    window.ssd headerbar.titlebar {
    padding-top: 4px;
    padding-bottom: 4px;
    min-height: 0;
    }
    window.ssd headerbar.titlebar button.titlebutton {
    padding: 0px;
    min-height: 0;
    min-width: 0;
    }

Disable “natural scrolling” for mouse wheel:

While I like “natural scrolling” with the touchpad (enable it in the mouse preferences), I don’t like it on the mouse wheel. To disable it only on the mouse:
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.peripherals.mouse natural-scroll false

If you run Gnome on good old X instead of Wayland (e.g. for driver support of more stability while Wayland matures), you need to use libinput instead of the synaptic driver to make “natural scrolling” possible:

$ sudo mkdir -p /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d && sudo cp -rp /usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-libinput.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/

Log out.

Enable Thunderbird notifications:

For Thunderbird new mail notification I installed the gnotifier Thunderbird add-on: https://addons.mozilla.org/en-us/thunderbird/addon/gnotifier/

Extensions that I tried, liked but ended not using:

  • gnome-shell-extension-pixelsaver: it feels unnatural on a 3 screen setup like I use at work, e.g. min-max-close windows buttons on the main screen for windows on other screens..
  • gnome-shell-extension-hide-activities: the top menu is already mostly empty, so it’s not saving much.
  • gnome-shell-extension-move-clock: although I prefer the clock on the right, the default middle position makes sense as it integrates with notifications.

That’s it (so far 🙂 ).

Thx to @sil, @adsamalik and Jonathan Carter.


Filed under: Uncategorized Tagged: gnome, Gnome3, Linux, Linux Desktop, Thanks for all the fish, Ubuntu, unity

May 24, 2017

In this blog post I outline my thinking on sharing code that deals with different types of Entities in your domain. We’ll cover what Entities are, code reuse strategies, pitfalls such as Shotgun Surgery and Anemic Domain Models and finally Bounded Contexts.

Why I wrote this post

I work at Wikimedia Deutschland, where amongst other things, we are working on a software called Wikibase, which is what powers the Wikidata project. We have a dedicated team for this software, called the Wikidata team, which I am not part of. As an outsider that is somewhat familiar with the Wikibase codebase, I came across a writeup of a perceived problem in this codebase and a pair of possible solutions. I happen to disagree with what the actual problem is, and as a consequence also the solutions. Since explaining why I think that takes a lot of general (non-Wikibase specific) explanation, I decided to write a blog post.

DDD Entities

Let’s start with defining what an Entity is. Entities are a tactical Domain Driven Design pattern. They are things that can change over time and are compared by identity rather than by value, unlike Value Objects, which do not have an identity.

Wikibase has objects which are conceptually such Entities, though are implemented … oddly from a DDD perspective. In the above excerpt, the word entity, is confusingly, not referring to the DDD concept. Instead, the Wikibase domain has a concept called Entity, implemented by an abstract class with the same name, and derived from by specific types of Entities, i.e. Item and Property. Those are the objects that are conceptually DDD Entities, yet diverge from what a DDD Entity looks like.

Entities normally contain domain logic (the lack of this is called an Anemic Domain Model), and don’t have setters. The lack of setters does not mean they are immutable, it’s just that actions are performed through methods in the domain language (see Ubiquitous Language). For instance “confirmBooked()” and “cancel()” instead of “setStatus()”.

The perceived problem

What follows is an excerpt from a document aimed at figuring out how to best construct entities in Wikibase:

Some entity types have required fields:

  • Properties require a data type
  • Lexemes require a language and a lexical category (both ItemIds)
  • Forms require a grammatical feature (an ItemId)

The ID field is required by all entities. This is less problematic however, since the ID can be constructed and treated the same way for all kinds of entities. Furthermore, the ID can never change, while other required fields could be modified by an edit (even a property’s data type can be changed using a maintenance script).

The fact that Properties require the data type ID to be provided to the constructor is problematic in the current code, as evidenced in EditEntity::clearEntity:

// FIXME how to avoid special case handling here?
if ( $entity instanceof Property ) {
  /** @var Property $newEntity */
  $newEntity->setDataTypeId( $entity->getDataTypeId() );
}

…as well as in EditEntity::modifyEntity():

// if we create a new property, make sure we set the datatype
if ( !$exists && $entity instanceof Property ) {
  if ( !isset( $data['datatype'] ) ) {
     $this->errorReporter->dieError( 'No datatype given', 'param-illegal' );
  } elseif ( !in_array( $data['datatype'], $this->propertyDataTypes ) ) {
     $this->errorReporter->dieError( 'Invalid datatype given', 'param-illegal' );
  } else {
     $entity->setDataTypeId( $data['datatype'] );
  }
}

Such special case handling will not be possible for entity types defined in extensions.

It is very natural for (DDD) Entities to have required fields. That is not a problem in itself. For examples you can look at our Fundraising software.

So what is the problem really?

Generic vs specific entity handling code

Normally when you have a (DDD) Entity, say a Donation, you also have dedicated code that deals with those Donation objects. If you have another entity, say MembershipApplication, you will have other code that deals with it.

If the code handling Donation and the code handing MembershipApplication is very similar, there might be an opportunity to share things via composition. One should be very careful to not do this for things that happen to be the same but are conceptually different, and might thus change differently in the future. It’s very easy to add a lot of complexity and coupling by extracting small bits of what would otherwise be two sets of simple and easy to maintain code. This is a topic worthy of its own blog post, and indeed, I might publish one titled The Fallacy of DRY in the near future.

This sharing via composition is not really visible “from outside” of the involved services, except for the code that constructs them. If you have a DonationRepository and a MembershipRepository interface, they will look the same if their implementations share something, or not. Repositories might share cross cutting concerns such as logging. Logging is not something you want to do in your repository implementations themselves, but you can easily create simple logging decorators. A LoggingDonationRepostory and LoggingMembershipRepository could both depend on the same Logger class (or interface more  likely), and thus be sharing code via composition. In the end, the DonationRepository still just deals with Donation objects, the MembershipRepository still just deals with Membership objects, and both remain completely decoupled from each other.

In the Wikibase codebase there is an attempt at code reuse by having services that can deal with all types of Entities. Phrased like this it sounds nice. From the perspective of the user of the service, things are great at first glance. Thing is, those services then are forced to actually deal with all types of Entities, which almost guarantees greater complexity than having dedicated services that focus on a single entity.

If your Donation and MembershipApplication entities both implement Foobarable and you have a FoobarExecution service that operates on Foobarable instances, that is entirely fine. Things get dodgy when your Entities don’t always share the things your service needs, and the service ends up getting instances of object, or perhaps some minimal EntityInterface type.

In those cases the service can add a bunch of “if has method doFoobar, call it with these arguments” logic. Or perhaps you’re checking against an interface instead of method, though this is by and large the same. This approach leads to Shotgun Surgery. It is particularly bad if you have a general service. If your service is really only about the doFoobar method, then at least you won’t need to poke at it when a new Entity is added to the system that has nothing to do with the Foobar concept. If the service on the other hands needs to fully save something or send an email with a summary of the data, each new Entity type will force you to change your service.

The “if doFoobar exists” approach does not work if you want plugins to your system to be able to use your generic services with their own types of Entities. To enable that, and avoid the Shotgun Surgery, your general service can delegate to specific ones. For instance, you can have an EntityRepository service with a save method that takes an EntityInterface. In it’s constructor it would take an array of specific repositories, i.e. a DonationRepository and a MembershipRepository. In its save method it would loop through these specific repositories and somehow determine which one to use. Perhaps they would have a canHandle method that takes an EntityInterface, or perhaps EntityInterface has a getType method that returns a string that is also used as keys in the array of specific repositories. Once the right one is found, the EntitiyInterface instance is handed over to its save method.

interface Repository {
    public function save( EntityInterface $entity );
    public function canHandle( EntityInterface $entity ): bool;
}

class DonationRepository implements Repository { /**/ }
class MembershipRepository implements Repository { /**/ }

class GenericEntityRepository {
    /**
     * @var Repository[] $repositories
     */
    public function __construct( array $repositories ) {
        $this->repositories = $repositories;
    }

    public function save( EntityInterface $entity ) {
        foreach ( $this->repositories as $repository ) {
            if ( $repository->canHandle( $entity ) ) {
                $repository->save( $entity );
                break;
            }
        }
    }
}

This delegation approach is sane enough from a OO perspective. It does however involve specific repositories, which begs the question of why you are creating a general one in the first place. If there is no compelling reason to create the general one, just stick to specific ones and save yourself all this not needed complexity and vagueness.

In Wikibase there is a generic web API endpoint for creating new entities. The users provide a pile of information via JSON or a bunch of parameters, which includes the type of Entity they are trying to create. If you have this type of functionality, you are forced to deal with this in some way, and probably want to go with the delegation approach. To me having such an API endpoint is very questionable, with dedicated endpoints being the simpler solution for everyone involved.

To wrap this up: dedicated entity handling code is much simpler than generic code, making it easier to write, use, understand and modify. Code reuse, where warranted, is possible via composition inside of implementations without changing the interfaces of services. Generic entity handling code is almost always a bad choice.

On top of what I already outlined, there is another big issue you can run into when creating generic entity handling code like is done in Wikibase.

Bounded Contexts

Bounded Contexts are a key strategic concept from Domain Driven Design. They are key in the sense that if you don’t apply them in your project, you cannot effectively apply tactical patterns such as Entities and Value Objects, and are not really doing DDD at all.

“Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy are the noise before defeat.” — Sun Tzu

Bounded Contexts allow you to segregate your domain models, ideally having a Bounded Context per subdomain. A detailed explanation and motivation of this pattern is out of scope for this post, but suffice to say is that Bounded Contexts allow for simplification and thus make it easier to write and maintain code. For more information I can recommend Domain-Driven Design Destilled.

In case of Wikibase there are likely a dozen or so relevant subdomains. While I did not do the analysis to create a comprehensive picture of which subdomains there are, which types they have, and which Bounded Contexts would make sense, a few easily stand out.

There is the so-called core Wikibase software, which was created for Wikidata.org, and deals with structured data for Wikipedia. It has two types of Entities (both in the Wikibase and in the DDD sense): Item and Property. Then there is (planned) functionality for Wiktionary, which will be structured dictionary data, and for Wikimedia Commons, which will be structured media data. These are two separate subdomains, and thus each deserve their own Bounded Context. This means having no code and no conceptual dependencies on each other or the existing Big Ball of Mud type “Bounded Context” in the Wikibase core software.

Conclusion

When standard approaches are followed, Entities can easily have required fields and optional fields. Creating generic code that deals with different types of entities is very suspect and can easily lead to great complexity and brittle code, as seen in Wikibase. It is also a road to not separating concepts properly, which is particularly bad when crossing subdomain boundaries.

May 23, 2017

In 2007, Jay Batson and I wanted to build a software company based on open source and Drupal. I was 29 years old then, and eager to learn how to build a business that could change the world of software, strengthen the Drupal project and help drive the future of the web.

Tom Erickson joined Acquia's board of directors with an outstanding record of scaling and leading technology companies. About a year later, after a lot of convincing, Tom agreed to become our CEO. At the time, Acquia was 30 people strong and we were working out of a small office in Andover, Massachusetts. Nine years later, we can count 16 of the Fortune 100 among our customers, saw our staff grow from 30 to more than 750 employees, have more than $150MM in annual revenue, and have 14 offices across 7 countries. And, importantly, Acquia has also made an undeniable impact on Drupal, as we said we would.

I've been lucky to have had Tom as my business partner and I'm incredibly proud of what we have built together. He has been my friend, my business partner, and my professor. I learned first hand the complexities of growing an enterprise software company; from building a culture, to scaling a global team of employees, to making our customers successful.

Today is an important day in the evolution of Acquia:

  • Tom has decided it's time for him step down as CEO, allowing him flexibility with his personal time and act more as an advisor to companies, the role that brought him to Acquia in the first place.
  • We're going to search for a new CEO for Acquia. When we find that business partner, Tom will be stepping down as CEO. After the search is completed, Tom will remain on Acquia's Board of Directors, where he can continue to help advise and guide the company.
  • We are formalizing the working relationship I've had with Tom during the past 8 years by creating an Office of the CEO. I will focus on product strategy, product development, including product architecture and Acquia's roadmap; technology partnerships and acquisitions; and company-wide hiring and staffing allocations. Tom will focus on sales and marketing, customer success and G&A functions.

The time for these changes felt right to both of us. We spent the first decade of Acquia laying down the foundation of a solid business model for going out to the market and delivering customer success with Drupal – Tom's core strengths from his long career as a technology executive. Acquia's next phase will be focused on building confidently on this foundation with more product innovation, new technology acquisitions and more strategic partnerships – my core strengths as a technologist.

Tom is leaving Acquia in a great position. This past year, the top industry analysts published very positive reviews based on their dealings with our customers. I'm proud that Acquia made the most significant positive move of all vendors in last year's Gartner Magic Quadrant for Web Content Management and that Forrester recognized Acquia as the leader for strategy and vision. We increasingly find ourselves at the center of our customer's technology and digital strategies. At a time when digital experiences means more than just web content management, and data and content intelligence play an increasing role in defining success for our customers, we are well positioned for the next phase of our growth.

I continue to love the work I do at Acquia each day. We have a passionate team of builders and dreamers, doers and makers. To the Acquia team around the world: 2017 will be a year of changes, but you have my commitment, in every way, to lead Acquia with clarity and focus.

To read Tom's thoughts on the transition, please check out his blog post. Michael Skok, Acquia's lead investor, also covered it on his blog.

Tom and dries

May 19, 2017

The post CentOS 7.4 to ship with TLS 1.2 + ALPN appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

Oh happy days!

I've long been tracking the "Bug 1276310 -- (rhel7-openssl1.0.2) RFE: Need OpenSSL 1.0.2" issue, where Red Hat users are asking for an updated version of the OpenSSL package. Mainly to get TLS 1.2 and ALPN.

_openssl_ rebased to version 1.0.2k

The _openssl_ package has been updated to upstream version 1.0.2k, which provides a number of enhancements, new features, and bug fixes, including:

* Added support for the datagram TLS (DTLS) protocol version 1.2.

* Added support for the TLS automatic elliptic curve selection.

* Added support for the Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN).

* Added Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) support for the following schemes: RSA-PSS, RSA-OAEP, ECDH, and X9.42 DH.

Note that this version is compatible with the API and ABI in the *OpenSSL* library version in previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.
RFE: Need OpenSSL 1.0.2

The ALPN support is needed because in the Chrome browser, server-side ALPN support is a dependency to support HTTP/2. Without it, Chrome users don't get to use HTTP/2 on your servers.

The newly updated packages for OpenSSL are targeting the RHEL 7.4 release, which -- as far as I'm aware -- has no scheduled release date yet. But I'll be waiting for it!

As soon as RHEL 7.4 is released, we should expect a CentOS 7.4 release soon after.

The post CentOS 7.4 to ship with TLS 1.2 + ALPN appeared first on ma.ttias.be.

There was a lot of buzz about the leak of two huge databases of passwords a few days ago. This has been reported by Try Hunt on his blog. The two databases are called “Anti-Trust-Combo-List” and “Exploit.In“. If the sources of the leaks are not officially known, there are some ways to discover some of them (see my previous article about the “+” feature offered by Google).

A few days after the first leak, a second version of “Exploit.In” was released with even more passwords:

Name

Size

Credentials

Anti-Trust-Combo-List

16GB

540.701.509

Exploit.In

15GB

499.305.318

Exploit.In (2)

24GB

805.499.579

With the huge of amount of passwords released in the wild, you can assume that your password is also included. But what are those passwords? I used Robbin Wood‘s tool pipal to analyze those passwords.

I decided to analyze the Anti-Trust-Combo-List but I had to restart several times due to a lack of resources (pipal requires a lot of memory to generate the statistics) and it failed always. I decided to use a sample of the passwords. I successfully analyzed 91M passwords. The results generated by pipal are available below.

What can we deduce? Weak passwords remain classic. Most passwords have only 8 characters and are based on lowercase characters. Interesting fact: users like to “increase” the complexity of the password by adding trailing numbers:

  • Just one number (due to the fact that they have to change it regularly and just increase it at every expiration)
  • By adding their birth year
  • By adding the current year
Basic Results

Total entries = 91178452
Total unique entries = 40958257

Top 20 passwords
123456 = 559283 (0.61%)
123456789 = 203554 (0.22%)
passer2009 = 186798 (0.2%)
abc123 = 100158 (0.11%)
password = 96731 (0.11%)
password1 = 84124 (0.09%)
12345678 = 80534 (0.09%)
12345 = 76051 (0.08%)
homelesspa = 74418 (0.08%)
1234567 = 68161 (0.07%)
111111 = 66460 (0.07%)
qwerty = 63957 (0.07%)
1234567890 = 58651 (0.06%)
123123 = 52272 (0.06%)
iloveyou = 51664 (0.06%)
000000 = 49783 (0.05%)
1234 = 35583 (0.04%)
123456a = 34675 (0.04%)
monkey = 32926 (0.04%)
dragon = 29902 (0.03%)

Top 20 base words
password = 273853 (0.3%)
passer = 208434 (0.23%)
qwerty = 163356 (0.18%)
love = 161514 (0.18%)
july = 148833 (0.16%)
march = 144519 (0.16%)
phone = 122229 (0.13%)
shark = 121618 (0.13%)
lunch = 119449 (0.13%)
pole = 119240 (0.13%)
table = 119215 (0.13%)
glass = 119164 (0.13%)
frame = 118830 (0.13%)
iloveyou = 118447 (0.13%)
angel = 101049 (0.11%)
alex = 98135 (0.11%)
monkey = 97850 (0.11%)
myspace = 90841 (0.1%)
michael = 88258 (0.1%)
mike = 82412 (0.09%)

Password length (length ordered)
1 = 54418 (0.06%)
2 = 49550 (0.05%)
3 = 247263 (0.27%)
4 = 1046032 (1.15%)
5 = 1842546 (2.02%)
6 = 15660408 (17.18%)
7 = 14326554 (15.71%)
8 = 25586920 (28.06%)
9 = 12250247 (13.44%)
10 = 11895989 (13.05%)
11 = 2604066 (2.86%)
12 = 1788770 (1.96%)
13 = 1014515 (1.11%)
14 = 709778 (0.78%)
15 = 846485 (0.93%)
16 = 475022 (0.52%)
17 = 157311 (0.17%)
18 = 136428 (0.15%)
19 = 83420 (0.09%)
20 = 93576 (0.1%)
21 = 46885 (0.05%)
22 = 42648 (0.05%)
23 = 31118 (0.03%)
24 = 29999 (0.03%)
25 = 25956 (0.03%)
26 = 14798 (0.02%)
27 = 10285 (0.01%)
28 = 10245 (0.01%)
29 = 7895 (0.01%)
30 = 12573 (0.01%)
31 = 4168 (0.0%)
32 = 66017 (0.07%)
33 = 1887 (0.0%)
34 = 1422 (0.0%)
35 = 1017 (0.0%)
36 = 469 (0.0%)
37 = 250 (0.0%)
38 = 231 (0.0%)
39 = 116 (0.0%)
40 = 435 (0.0%)
41 = 45 (0.0%)
42 = 57 (0.0%)
43 = 14 (0.0%)
44 = 47 (0.0%)
45 = 5 (0.0%)
46 = 13 (0.0%)
47 = 1 (0.0%)
48 = 16 (0.0%)
49 = 14 (0.0%)
50 = 21 (0.0%)
51 = 2 (0.0%)
52 = 1 (0.0%)
53 = 2 (0.0%)
54 = 22 (0.0%)
55 = 1 (0.0%)
56 = 3 (0.0%)
57 = 1 (0.0%)
58 = 2 (0.0%)
60 = 10 (0.0%)
61 = 3 (0.0%)
63 = 3 (0.0%)
64 = 1 (0.0%)
65 = 2 (0.0%)
66 = 9 (0.0%)
67 = 2 (0.0%)
68 = 2 (0.0%)
69 = 1 (0.0%)
70 = 1 (0.0%)
71 = 3 (0.0%)
72 = 1 (0.0%)
73 = 1 (0.0%)
74 = 1 (0.0%)
76 = 2 (0.0%)
77 = 1 (0.0%)
78 = 1 (0.0%)
79 = 3 (0.0%)
81 = 3 (0.0%)
83 = 1 (0.0%)
85 = 1 (0.0%)
86 = 1 (0.0%)
88 = 1 (0.0%)
89 = 1 (0.0%)
90 = 6 (0.0%)
92 = 3 (0.0%)
93 = 1 (0.0%)
95 = 1 (0.0%)
96 = 16 (0.0%)
97 = 1 (0.0%)
98 = 3 (0.0%)
99 = 2 (0.0%)
100 = 1 (0.0%)
104 = 1 (0.0%)
107 = 1 (0.0%)
108 = 1 (0.0%)
109 = 1 (0.0%)
111 = 2 (0.0%)
114 = 1 (0.0%)
119 = 1 (0.0%)
128 = 377 (0.0%)

Password length (count ordered)
8 = 25586920 (28.06%)
6 = 15660408 (17.18%)
7 = 14326554 (15.71%)
9 = 12250247 (13.44%)
10 = 11895989 (13.05%)
11 = 2604066 (2.86%)
5 = 1842546 (2.02%)
12 = 1788770 (1.96%)
4 = 1046032 (1.15%)
13 = 1014515 (1.11%)
15 = 846485 (0.93%)
14 = 709778 (0.78%)
16 = 475022 (0.52%)
3 = 247263 (0.27%)
17 = 157311 (0.17%)
18 = 136428 (0.15%)
20 = 93576 (0.1%)
19 = 83420 (0.09%)
32 = 66017 (0.07%)
1 = 54418 (0.06%)
2 = 49550 (0.05%)
21 = 46885 (0.05%)
22 = 42648 (0.05%)
23 = 31118 (0.03%)
24 = 29999 (0.03%)
25 = 25956 (0.03%)
26 = 14798 (0.02%)
30 = 12573 (0.01%)
27 = 10285 (0.01%)
28 = 10245 (0.01%)
29 = 7895 (0.01%)
31 = 4168 (0.0%)
33 = 1887 (0.0%)
34 = 1422 (0.0%)
35 = 1017 (0.0%)
36 = 469 (0.0%)
40 = 435 (0.0%)
128 = 377 (0.0%)
37 = 250 (0.0%)
38 = 231 (0.0%)
39 = 116 (0.0%)
42 = 57 (0.0%)
44 = 47 (0.0%)
41 = 45 (0.0%)
54 = 22 (0.0%)
50 = 21 (0.0%)
48 = 16 (0.0%)
96 = 16 (0.0%)
49 = 14 (0.0%)
43 = 14 (0.0%)
46 = 13 (0.0%)
60 = 10 (0.0%)
66 = 9 (0.0%)
90 = 6 (0.0%)
45 = 5 (0.0%)
71 = 3 (0.0%)
56 = 3 (0.0%)
92 = 3 (0.0%)
79 = 3 (0.0%)
98 = 3 (0.0%)
63 = 3 (0.0%)
61 = 3 (0.0%)
81 = 3 (0.0%)
51 = 2 (0.0%)
58 = 2 (0.0%)
65 = 2 (0.0%)
53 = 2 (0.0%)
67 = 2 (0.0%)
68 = 2 (0.0%)
76 = 2 (0.0%)
111 = 2 (0.0%)
99 = 2 (0.0%)
73 = 1 (0.0%)
72 = 1 (0.0%)
74 = 1 (0.0%)
70 = 1 (0.0%)
69 = 1 (0.0%)
77 = 1 (0.0%)
78 = 1 (0.0%)
64 = 1 (0.0%)
109 = 1 (0.0%)
114 = 1 (0.0%)
119 = 1 (0.0%)
83 = 1 (0.0%)
107 = 1 (0.0%)
85 = 1 (0.0%)
86 = 1 (0.0%)
104 = 1 (0.0%)
88 = 1 (0.0%)
89 = 1 (0.0%)
57 = 1 (0.0%)
100 = 1 (0.0%)
55 = 1 (0.0%)
93 = 1 (0.0%)
52 = 1 (0.0%)
95 = 1 (0.0%)
47 = 1 (0.0%)
97 = 1 (0.0%)
108 = 1 (0.0%)

| 
 | 
 | 
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||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||
000000000011111111112222222222333333333344444444445555555555666666666677
012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901

One to six characters = 18900217 (20.73%)
One to eight characters = 58813691 (64.5'%)
More than eight characters = 32364762 (35.5%)

Only lowercase alpha = 25300978 (27.75%)
Only uppercase alpha = 468686 (0.51%)
Only alpha = 25769664 (28.26%)
Only numeric = 9526597 (10.45%)

First capital last symbol = 72550 (0.08%)
First capital last number = 2427417 (2.66%)

Single digit on the end = 13167140 (14.44%)
Two digits on the end = 14225600 (15.6%)
Three digits on the end = 6155272 (6.75%)

Last number
0 = 4370023 (4.79%)
1 = 12711477 (13.94%)
2 = 5661520 (6.21%)
3 = 6642438 (7.29%)
4 = 3951994 (4.33%)
5 = 4028739 (4.42%)
6 = 4295485 (4.71%)
7 = 4055751 (4.45%)
8 = 3596305 (3.94%)
9 = 4240044 (4.65%)

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|||||||||| 
0123456789

Last digit
1 = 12711477 (13.94%)
3 = 6642438 (7.29%)
2 = 5661520 (6.21%)
0 = 4370023 (4.79%)
6 = 4295485 (4.71%)
9 = 4240044 (4.65%)
7 = 4055751 (4.45%)
5 = 4028739 (4.42%)
4 = 3951994 (4.33%)
8 = 3596305 (3.94%)

Last 2 digits (Top 20)
23 = 2831841 (3.11%)
12 = 1570044 (1.72%)
11 = 1325293 (1.45%)
01 = 1036629 (1.14%)
56 = 1013453 (1.11%)
10 = 909480 (1.0%)
00 = 897526 (0.98%)
13 = 854165 (0.94%)
09 = 814370 (0.89%)
21 = 812093 (0.89%)
22 = 709996 (0.78%)
89 = 706074 (0.77%)
07 = 675624 (0.74%)
34 = 627901 (0.69%)
08 = 626722 (0.69%)
69 = 572897 (0.63%)
88 = 557667 (0.61%)
77 = 557429 (0.61%)
14 = 539236 (0.59%)
45 = 530671 (0.58%)

Last 3 digits (Top 20)
123 = 2221895 (2.44%)
456 = 807267 (0.89%)
234 = 434714 (0.48%)
009 = 326602 (0.36%)
789 = 318622 (0.35%)
000 = 316149 (0.35%)
345 = 295463 (0.32%)
111 = 263894 (0.29%)
101 = 225151 (0.25%)
007 = 222062 (0.24%)
321 = 221598 (0.24%)
666 = 201995 (0.22%)
010 = 192798 (0.21%)
777 = 164454 (0.18%)
011 = 141015 (0.15%)
001 = 138363 (0.15%)
008 = 137610 (0.15%)
999 = 129483 (0.14%)
987 = 126046 (0.14%)
678 = 123301 (0.14%)

Last 4 digits (Top 20)
3456 = 727407 (0.8%)
1234 = 398622 (0.44%)
2009 = 298108 (0.33%)
2345 = 269935 (0.3%)
6789 = 258059 (0.28%)
1111 = 148964 (0.16%)
2010 = 140684 (0.15%)
2008 = 111014 (0.12%)
2000 = 110456 (0.12%)
0000 = 108767 (0.12%)
2011 = 103328 (0.11%)
5678 = 102873 (0.11%)
4567 = 94964 (0.1%)
2007 = 94172 (0.1%)
4321 = 92849 (0.1%)
3123 = 92104 (0.1%)
1990 = 87828 (0.1%)
1987 = 87142 (0.1%)
2006 = 86640 (0.1%)
1991 = 86574 (0.09%)

Last 5 digits (Top 20)
23456 = 721648 (0.79%)
12345 = 261734 (0.29%)
56789 = 252914 (0.28%)
11111 = 116179 (0.13%)
45678 = 96011 (0.11%)
34567 = 90262 (0.1%)
23123 = 84654 (0.09%)
00000 = 81056 (0.09%)
54321 = 73623 (0.08%)
67890 = 66301 (0.07%)
21212 = 28777 (0.03%)
23321 = 28767 (0.03%)
77777 = 28572 (0.03%)
22222 = 27754 (0.03%)
55555 = 26081 (0.03%)
66666 = 25872 (0.03%)
56123 = 21354 (0.02%)
88888 = 19025 (0.02%)
99999 = 18288 (0.02%)
12233 = 16677 (0.02%)

Character sets
loweralphanum: 47681569 (52.29%)
loweralpha: 25300978 (27.75%)
numeric: 9526597 (10.45%)
mixedalphanum: 3075964 (3.37%)
loweralphaspecial: 1721507 (1.89%)
loweralphaspecialnum: 1167596 (1.28%)
mixedalpha: 981987 (1.08%)
upperalphanum: 652292 (0.72%)
upperalpha: 468686 (0.51%)
mixedalphaspecialnum: 187283 (0.21%)
specialnum: 81096 (0.09%)
mixedalphaspecial: 53882 (0.06%)
upperalphaspecialnum: 39668 (0.04%)
upperalphaspecial: 18674 (0.02%)
special: 14657 (0.02%)

Character set ordering
stringdigit: 41059315 (45.03%)
allstring: 26751651 (29.34%)
alldigit: 9526597 (10.45%)
othermask: 4189226 (4.59%)
digitstring: 4075593 (4.47%)
stringdigitstring: 2802490 (3.07%)
stringspecial: 792852 (0.87%)
digitstringdigit: 716311 (0.79%)
stringspecialstring: 701378 (0.77%)
stringspecialdigit: 474579 (0.52%)
specialstring: 45323 (0.05%)
specialstringspecial: 28480 (0.03%)
allspecial: 14657 (0.02%)

[The post Your Password is Already In the Wild, You Did not Know? has been first published on /dev/random]

May 18, 2017

Friduction

There is one significant trend that I have noticed over and over again: the internet's continuous drive to mitigate friction in user experiences and business models.

Since the internet's commercial debut in the early 90s, it has captured success and upset the established order by eliminating unnecessary middlemen. Book stores, photo shops, travel agents, stock brokers, bank tellers and music stores are just a few examples of the kinds of middlemen who have been eliminated by their online counterparts. The act of buying books, printing photos or booking flights online alleviates the friction felt by consumers who must stand in line or wait on hold to speak to a customer service representative.

Rather than negatively describing this evolution as disintermediation or taking something away, I believe there is value in recognizing that the internet is constantly improving customer experiences by reducing friction from systems — a process I like to call "friduction".

Open Source and cloud

Over the past 15 years, I have observed Open Source and cloud-computing solutions remove friction from legacy approaches to technology. Open Source takes the friction out of the technology evaluation and adoption process; you are not forced to get a demo or go through a sales and procurement process, or deal with the limitations of a proprietary license. Cloud computing also took off because it also offers friduction; with cloud, companies pay for what they use, avoid large up-front capital expenditures, and gain speed-to-market.

Cross-channel experiences

There is a reason why Drupal's API-first initiative is one of the topics I've talked and written the most about in 2016; it enables Drupal to "move beyond the page" and integrate with different user engagement systems that can eliminate inefficiencies and improve the user experience of traditional websites.

We're quickly headed to a world where websites are evolving into cross­channel experiences, which includes push notifications, conversational UIs, and more. Conversational UIs, such as chatbots and voice assistants, will prevail because they improve and redefine the customer experience.

Personalization and contextualization

In the 90s, personalization meant that websites could address authenticated users by name. I remember the first time I saw my name appear on a website; I was excited! Obviously personalization strategies have come a long way since the 90s. Today, websites present recommendations based on a user's most recent activity, and consumers expect to be provided with highly tailored experiences. The drive for greater personalization and contextualization will never stop; there is too much value in removing friction from the user experience. When a commerce website can predict what you like based on past behavior, it eliminates friction from the shopping process. When a customer support website can predict what question you are going to ask next, it is able to provide a better customer experience. This is not only useful for the user, but also for the business. A more efficient user experience will translate into higher sales, improved customer retention and better brand exposure.

To keep pace with evolving user expectations, tomorrow's digital experiences will need to deliver more tailored, and even predictive customer experiences. This will require organizations to consume multiple sources of data, such as location data, historic clickstream data, or information from wearables to create a fine-grained user context. Data will be the foundation for predictive analytics and personalization services. Advancing user privacy in conjunction with data-driven strategies will be an important component of enhancing personalized experiences. Eventually, I believe that data-driven experiences will be the norm.

At Acquia, we started investing in contextualization and personalization in 2014, through the release of a product called Acquia Lift. Adoption of Acquia Lift has grown year over year, and we expect it to increase for years to come. Contextualization and personalization will become more pervasive, especially as different systems of engagements, big data, the internet of things (IoT) and machine learning mature, combine, and begin to have profound impacts on what the definition of a great user experience should be. It might take a few more years before trends like personalization and contextualization are fully adopted by the early majority, but we are patient investors and product builders. Systems like Acquia Lift will be of critical importance and premiums will be placed on orchestrating the optimal customer journey.

Conclusion

The history of the web dictates that lower-friction solutions will surpass what came before them because they eliminate inefficiencies from the customer experience. Friduction is a long-term trend. Websites, the internet of things, augmented and virtual reality, conversational UIs — all of these technologies will continue to grow because they will enable us to build lower-friction digital experiences.

Today I was attempting to update a local repository, when SSH complained about a changed fingerprint, something like the following:

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@    WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED!     @
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY!
Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that a host key has just been changed.
The fingerprint for the ECDSA key sent by the remote host is
SHA256:p4ZGs+YjsBAw26tn2a+HPkga1dPWWAWX+NEm4Cv4I9s.
Please contact your system administrator.
Add correct host key in /home/user/.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
Offending ECDSA key in /home/user/.ssh/known_hosts:9
ECDSA host key for 192.168.56.101 has changed and you have requested strict checking.
Host key verification failed.

I published the following diary on isc.sans.org: “My Little CVE Bot“.

The massive spread of the WannaCry ransomware last Friday was another good proof that many organisations still fail to patch their systems. Everybody admits that patching is a boring task. They are many constraints that make this process very difficult to implement and… apply! That’s why any help is welcome to know what to patch and when… [Read more]

[The post [SANS ISC] My Little CVE Bot has been first published on /dev/random]

May 17, 2017

  • First rule. You must understand the rules of scuba diving. If you don’t know or understand the rules of scuba diving, go to the second rule.
  • The second rule is that you never dive alone.
  • The third rule is that you always keep close enough to each other to perform a rescue of any kind.
  • The forth rule is that you signal each other and therefor know each other’s signals. Underwater, communication is key.
  • The fifth rule is that you tell the others, for example, when you don’t feel well. The others want to know when you emotionally don’t feel well. Whenever you are insecure, you tell them. This is hard.
  • The sixth rule is that you don’t violate earlier agreed upon rules.
  • The seventh rule is that given rules will be eclipsed the moment any form of panic occurs, you will restore the rules using rationalism first, pragmatism next but emotional feelings last. No matter what.
  • The eighth rule is that the seventh rule is key to survival.

These rules make scuba diving an excellent learning school for software development project managers.

May 16, 2017

I have to admit it, I’m not the biggest fan of Java. But, when they asked me to prepare a talk for 1st grade students who are currently learning to code using Java, I decided it was time to challenge some of my prejudices. As I selected continuous integration as the topic of choice, I started out by looking at all available tools to quickly setup a reliable Java project. Having played with dotnet core the past months, I was looking for a tool that could do a bit of the same. A straightforward CLI interface that can create a project out of the box to mess around with. Maven provided to be of little help, but gradle turned out to be exactly what I was looking for. Great, I gained some faith.

It’s only while creating my slides and looking for tooling that can be used specifically for Java, that I had an epiphany. What if it is possible to create an entire developer environment using docker? So no need for local dependencies like linting tools or gradle. No need to mess with an IDE to get everything set up. And, no more “it works on my machine”. The power and advantages of a CI tool, straight onto your own computer.

A quick search on Google points us to gradle’s own Alpine linux container. It comes with JDK8 out of the box, exactly what we’re looking for. You can create a new Java application with a single command:

docker run -v=$(pwd):/app --workdir=/app gradle:alpine gradle init --type java-application

This starts a container, creates a volume linked to your current working directory and initializes a brand new Java application using gradle init --type java-application. As I don’t feel like typing those commands all the time, I created a makefile to help me build and debug the app. Yes, you can debug the app while it’s running in the container. Java supports remote debugging out of the box. Any modern IDE that supports Java, has support for remote debugging. Simply run the make debug command and attach to the remote debugging session on port 1044.

ROOT_DIR:=$(shell dirname $(realpath $(lastword $(MAKEFILE_LIST))))

build:
    docker run --rm -v=${ROOT_DIR}:/app --workdir=/app gradle:alpine gradle clean build

debug: build
    docker run --rm -v=${ROOT_DIR}:/app -p 1044:1044 --workdir=/app gradle:alpine java -classpath /app/build/classes/main -verbose -agentlib:jdwp=transport=dt_socket,server=y, suspend=y,address=1044 App

Now that we have a codebase that uses the same tools to build, run and debug, we need to bring our coding standard to a higher level. First off we need a linting tool. Traditionally, people look at checkstyle when it comes to Java. And while that could be fine for you, I found that tool rather annoying to set up. XML is not something I like to mess with other than to create UI, so seeing this verbose config set me back. There simply wasn’t time to look at that. Even with the 2 different style guides, it would still require a bit of tweaking to get everything right and make the build pass.

As it turns out, there are other tools out there which feel a bit more 21st century. One of those is coala. Now, coala can be used as a linting tool on a multitude of languages, not just Java, so definetly take a look at it, even if you’re not into Java yourself. It’s a Python based tool which has a lot of neat little bears who can do things. The config is a breeze as it’s a yaml file, and they provide a container so you can run the checks in an isolated environment. All in all, exactly what we’re looking for.

Let’s extend our makefile to run coala:

docker run --rm -v=${ROOT_DIR}:/app --workdir=/app coala/base coala --ci -V

I made sure to enable verbose logging, simply to be able to illustrate the tool to students. Feel free to disable that. You can easily control what coala needs to verify by creating a .coafile in the root of the repository. One of the major advantages to use coala over anything else, is that it can do both simple linting checks as well as full on static code analysis.

Let’s have a look at the settings I used to illustrate its power.

[Default]
files = src/**/*.java
language = java

[SPACES]
bears = SpaceConsistencyBear
use_spaces = True

[TODOS]
bears = KeywordBear

[PMD]
bears = JavaPMDBear
check_optimizations = true
check_naming = false

You can start out by defining a default. In my case, I’m telling coala to look for .java files which are written using Java. There are three bears being used. SpaceConsistencyBear, who will check for spaces and not tabs. KeywordBear, who dislikes //TODO comments in code, and JavaPMDBear, who invokes PMD to do some static code analysis. In the example, I had to set check_naming = false otherwise I would have lost a lot of time fixing those error (mostly due to my proper lack of Java knowledge).

Now, whenever I want to validate my code and enforce certain rules for me and my team, I can use coala to achieve this. Simply run make validate and it will start the container and invoke coala. At this point, we can setup the CI logic in our makefile by simply combining the two commands.

ci: validate build

The command make ci will invoke coala and if all goes well, use gradle to build and test the file. As a cherry on top, I also included test coverage. Using Jacoco, you can easily setup rules to fail the build when the coverage goes below a certain threshold. The tool is integrated directly into gradle and provides everything you need out of the box, simply add the following lines to your build.gradle file. This way, the build will fail if the coverage drops below 50%.

apply plugin: 'jacoco'

jacocoTestReport {
    reports {
        xml.enabled true
        html.enabled true
    }
}

jacocoTestCoverageVerification {
    violationRules {
        rule {
            limit {
                minimum = 0.5
            }
        }
    }
}

check.dependsOn jacocoTestCoverageVerifica

Make sure to edit the build step in the makefile to also include Jacoco.

build:
    docker run --rm -v=${ROOT_DIR}:/app --workdir=/app gradle:alpine gradle clean build jacocoTestReport

The only thing we still need to do is select a CI service of choice. I made sure to add examples for both circleci and travis, each of which only require docker and an override to use our makefile instead of auto-detecting gradle and running that. The way we set up this project allows us to easily switch CI when we need to, which is not all that strange given the lifecycle of a software project. The tools we choose when we start out, might be selected to fit the needs at the time of creation, but nothing assures us that will stay true forever. Designing for change is not something we need to do in code alone, it has a direct impact on everything, so expect things to change and your assumptions to be challenged.

Have a look at the source code for all the info and the build files for the two services. Enjoy!

Source code

May 15, 2017

It's been a while since I thought about this design, but I finally had time to implement it the proper way, and "just in time" as I needed recently to migrate our Foreman instance to another host (from CentOS 6 to CentOS 7)

Within the CentOS Infra, we use Foreman as an ENC for our Puppet environments (multiple ones). For full automation between configuration management and monitoring, you need some "glue". The idea is that whatever you describe at the configuration management level should be authoritative and so automatically configuring the monitoring solution you have in place in your Infra.

In our case, that means that we have Foreman/puppet on one side, and Zabbix on the other side. Let's see how we can "link" the two sides.

What I've seen so far is that you use exported resources on each node, store that in another PuppetDB, and then on the monitoring node, reapply all those resources. Problem with such solution is that it's "expensive" and when one thinks about it, a little bit strange to export the "knowledge" from Foreman back into another DB, and then let puppet compiles a huge catalog at the monitoring side, even if nothing was changed.

One issue is also that in our Zabbix setup, we also have some nodes that aren't really managed by Foreman/puppet (but other automation around Ansible, so I had to use an intermediate step that other tools can also use/abuse for the same reason.

The other reason also is that I admit that I'm a fan of "event driven" configuration change, so my idea was :

  • update a host in Foreman (or groups of hosts, etc)
  • publish that change on a secure network through a message queue (so asynchronous so that it doesn't slow down the foreman update operation itself)
  • let Zabbix server know that change and apply it (like linking a template to a host)

So the good news is that it can be done really easily with several components :

Here is a small overview of the process :

Foreman MQTT Zabbix

Foreman hooks

Setting up foreman hooks is really easy: just install the pkg itself (tfm-rubygem-foreman_hooks.noarch), read the Documentation, and then create your scripts. There are some examples for Bash and python in the examples directory, but basically you just need to place some scripts at specific place[s]. In my case I wanted to "trigger" an event in the case of a node update (like adding a puppet class, or variable/paramater change) so I just had to place it under /usr/share/foreman/config/hooks/host/managed/update/.

One little remark though : if you put a new file, don't forget to restart foreman itself, so that it picks that hooks file, otherwise it would still be ignored and so not ran.

Mosquitto

Mosquitto itself is available in your favorite rpm repo, so installing it is a breeze. Reason why I selected mosquitto is that it's very lightweight (package size is under 200Kb), it supports TLS and ACL out-of-the box.

For an introduction to MQTT/Mosquitto, I'd suggest you to read Jan-Piet Mens dedicated blog post around it I even admit that I discovered it by attending one of his talks on the topic, back in the Loadays.org days :-)

Zabbix-cli

While one can always discuss "Raw API" with Zabbix, I found it useful to use a tool I was already using for various tasks around Zabbix : zabbix-cli For people interested in using it on CentOS 6 or 7, I built the packages and they are on CBS

So I plumbed it in a systemd unit file that subscribe to specific MQTT topic, parse the needed informations (like hostname and zabbix templates to link, unlink, etc) and then it updates that in Zabbix itself (from the log output):

[+] 20170516-11:43 :  Adding zabbix template "Template CentOS - https SSL Cert Check External" to host "dev-registry.lon1.centos.org" 
[Done]: Templates Template CentOS - https SSL Cert Check External ({"templateid":"10105"}) linked to these hosts: dev-registry.lon1.centos.org ({"hostid":"10174"})

Cool, so now I don't have to worry about forgetting to tie a zabbix template to a host , as it's now done automatically. No need to say that the deployment of those tools was of course automated and coming from Puppet/foreman :-)